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TABLE 209.- Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or

lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see p. 525. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table. 6 This column includes 5 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none." cThis column includes 2 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as “none."

TABLE 210.—Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or

lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for

all races. For selection of families, see p. 525. The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.)

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a This column includes 5 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as “none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The above table shows that of the wives for whom information was secured, 51.1 per cent of those whose husbands earn less than $400 a year have employment or keep boarders or lodgers, as against 43.5 per cent of those whose husbands earn $400 and under $600 and 32.8 per cent of those whose husbands earn $600 or over. The proportion of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers is larger for the Lithuanians and Poles, both where the husband's income is under $400 and where it is $400 and under $600, than for any other foreign race.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The sources of family income are indicated by the table next presented. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

Table 211.Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife,

children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

Two families excluded which report income as "none.")

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In the families of this locality for which information was secured the principal source of family income is the earnings of the husbands. Among the foreign-born all the Lithuanian and Polish families and a larger proportion of the South Italian and French-Canadian families than of the Hebrew families derive income from the earnings of husband. The Lithuanians, followed by the Poles, have the largest and the French Canadians the smallest proportion of families deriving income from the payments of boarders or lodgers; the French Canadians have the largest and the Poles the smallest proportion of families deriving incomes from the contributions of children, excepting the Lithuanians, which show none. The proportion of families deriving incomes from the earnings of wife is largest for the Poles, and the proportion deriving incomes from sources not specified is largest for the Hebrews.

In the following table the sources of family income are shown in detail by general nativity and race of head of family, but each source specified is exclusive of all other sources. In other words, the proportion of families under each designated source have their entire income from that source.

TABLE 212.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table Includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

Two families are excluded which report income as “none."']

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In this locality, of the families for which information was secured, 31.8 per cent derive their entire income from the husband, 22.3 per cent from the husband and boarders or lodgers, 14.5 per cent from the husband and children, 17.3 per cent from sources or combinations of sources not specified, and only a small proportion from husband and wife, from wife and children, from children alone, from children and boarders or lodgers. The proportion of families deriving the entire income from the husband alone is largest for the South Italians, French Canadians, and Hebrews, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Poles, and the proportion deriving the entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers is largest for the Lithuanians and Poles, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the French Canadians. The French Canadians and Hebrews have the largest and Poles the smallest proportion of families deriving the entire income from the husband and children, the Lithuanians showing no income from this source, while the Poles and the Hebrews have the largest and the South Italians the smallest proportion receiving the entire income from sources or combinations of sources not specified.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

In the table next submitted the relative importance of the different sources of family income is indicated. The table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of total yearly income from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 213.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children,

boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

Two families are excluded which report income as "none.'')

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The principal source of income among the families in this locality is the earnings of husbands. A proportion of the total income is derived from the contributions of children, a smaller proportion from payments of boarders or lodgers, and only a very small proportion from the earnings of wife or from sources not specified. Under the specified headings the South Italian and Lithuanian families, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Hebrew families the smallest proportion of total income from the earnings of husband. The Hebrew families have the largest proportion of total income from the contribution of children, and the Lithuanian and Polish families have the largest proportion from payments of boarders or lodgers and from the earnings of wife.

CHAPTER XVI.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment–The immigrant and organized labor—[Text Tables 214 to

216 and General Table 136).

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The regularity of work offered, as well as the relative industriousness of the male operatives of the several races in Community B, is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by males, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over. The term "past year" in this connection means the twelve months immediately preceding the collection of the data. TABLE 214.- Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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The above table shows that of the males for whom information was secured but 28.9 per cent worked for the entire twelve months of the past year, that 58.5 per cent worked nine months or over, that 89.9 per cent worked six months or over, and that almost all worked at feast three months. The proportion of individuals who worked twelve months or nine months or over, respectively, is largest in the case of the native-born of native father, second largest in the case of the native-born of foreign father, and smallest in the case of the foreign48296°—Vol 12–11—31

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