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TABLE 206.- Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the 98 females here reported as working for wages, 23 earn under $200 a year, 49 earn under $300, 74 earn under $400, and 84 earn under $500. The average earnings for all individuals are $310. It will be noted that the average earnings of the native-born French Canadians are considerably higher than those of the foreign-born Hebrews, while the latter in turn are considerably higher than the earnings of the Lithuanians or Poles. The proportions in each specified wage group are very much higher among the foreign-born than among the native-born of either native or foreign father.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

The annual income of families the heads of which were employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in this community, together with the several sources of family income and their relative importance, is indicated by the series of tables next presented. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount.

TABLE 207.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. Two families are included which report income as "none."]

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a For selection of families, see p. 525.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of 222 families selected for study, 7.2 per cent have a total yearly income of under $300, 34.2 per cent have a total yearly income of under $500, 68.5 per cent of under $750, 86.5 per cent of under $1,000, and 97.3 per cent have a total yearly income of under $1,500. The total average yearly income of the 222 selected families is $673. Families the heads of which are native-born have a total average yearly income of $805 as contrasted with $661, which is the average total yearly income of families the heads of which are of foreign birth. The families the heads of which are South Italians show over 20 per cent having a total yearly income of under $300, the families the heads of which are Poles, Lithuanians, or French Canadians show less than 10 per cent, and no families whose heads are Hebrews have a total yearly income of under $300. The families the heads of which are South Italians show over 75 per cent, those whose heads are Lithuanians over 50 per cent, and those whoseheads are Poles over 40 per cent having a total yearly income of under $500, as contrasted with 25.9 per cent of families whose heads are Hebrews and 15.4 per cent of families whose heads are French Canadians having a total yearly income of under this amount. The families whose heads are Lithuanians show 100 per cent having a total yearly income of under $750. The families whose heads are Lithuanians, South Italians, or Poles show over 90 per cent, those whose heads are Hebrews over 85 per cent, and those whose heads are French Canadians over 75 per cent having a total yearly income under $1,000. The families whose heads are South Italians, Lithuanians, or Poles show 100 per cent and the families whose heads are Hebrews or French Canadians over 90 per cent having a total yearly income of under $1,500. The families whose heads are French Canadians have an average yearly income of over $800, followed by those whose heads are Hebrews with over $700, while the families whose heads are Poles show an average yearly income of over $500. The families whose heads are Lithuanians and South Italians show an average total yearly income of over $400.

WIVES AT WORK.

The disposition of wives to engage in occupations outside the home in order to supplement the earnings of the husbands is indicated by the following table:

TABLE 208.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see p. 525.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the wives in this locelity for whom information was secured, 12.6 per cent are reported at work. Among the foreign-born the proportion of wives at work is largest in the case of the Poles, Lithuanians, and French Canadians, in the order mentioned.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

It has been shown that only a small proportion of the wives in the families studied in the community were regularly employed for wages outside the home. On the other hand, a considerable proportion supplemented the earnings of the heads by taking boarders or lodgers into the home. The extent of this practice is indicated by the following two tables, which show, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 209.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see p. 525. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

This column includes 5 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none." c This column includes 2 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."

TABLE 210.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see p. 525. The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.]

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Canadian, French..

13.3

0.0

28.6

Hebrew.

Italian, South..

Lithuanian.

Polish.....

Grand total..

Total native-born.

Total foreign-born...

20.4

22.2

23. 1

32.0

27.8

33.3

31.0

84.2

87.5

82.1

91.7

87.5

(b)

90.5

51.1

43.5

32.8

43.8

(b)

(b)

(0)

(0)

51.7

43.1

37.5

45.6

a This column includes 5 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The above table shows that of the wives for whom information was secured, 51.1 per cent of those whose husbands earn less than $400 a year have employment or keep boarders or lodgers, as against 43.5 per cent of those whose husbands earn $400 and under $600 and 32.8

per cent of those whose husbands earn $600 or over. The proportion of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers is larger for the Lithuanians and Poles, both where the husband's income is under $400 and where it is $400 and under $600, than for any other foreign race.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The sources of family income are indicated by the table next presented. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 211.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. Two families excluded which report income as "none."]

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Total foreign-born...

201

93.5

24.4

35.8

12.9

11.4

a For selection of families, see p. 525.

b Not computed, owing to small number involved.

In the families of this locality for which information was secured the principal source of family income is the earnings of the husbands. Among the foreign-born all the Lithuanian and Polish families and a larger proportion of the South Italian and French-Canadian families than of the Hebrew families derive income from the earnings of husband. The Lithuanians, followed by the Poles, have the largest and the French Canadians the smallest proportion of families deriving income from the payments of boarders or lodgers; the French Canadians have the largest and the Poles the smallest proportion of families deriving incomes from the contributions of children, excepting the Lithuanians, which show none. The proportion of families deriving incomes from the earnings of wife is largest for the Poles, and the proportion deriving incomes from sources not specified is largest for the Hebrews.

In the following table the sources of family income are shown in detail by general nativity and race of head of family, but each source specified is exclusive of all other sources. In other words, the proportion of families under each designated source have their entire income from that source.

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