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ment in this factory. Their entrance was coincident with the expansion of the factory work and the withdrawal from the shoemaking trade of the native American country people, which resulted from concentrating all labor necessary in manufacturing shoes in factories.. Following closely upon the employment of the Irish were the French Canadians, who, with the exception of the native Americans, constitute at this time a larger proportion of all employees than do the representatives of any other race. The representatives of the other races, who, in each instance, constitute only a small proportion of the total number employed, have obtained employment in this factory from time to time, but not in sufficient numbers to be considered a factor in the operation of same. As showing the present composition of the employees the following statement, which exhibits, by race of individual, the number of each race in the specified occupations, is submitted

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PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF MEMBERS OF IMMI

GRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED. An insight into the character of recent immigration to the community is also furnished by the following table, which shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years. TABLE 193.—Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number

of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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36.6

59.8

86.4

Of the foreign-born persons in this locality for whom information was secured 36.6 per cent have been in the United States under five years; 59.8 per cent have been here under ten years; and 86.4 per cent have been here under twenty years. The proportion of individuals who have been in the United States under five years is largest for the Greeks, Poles, and Lithuanians, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the French Canadians, excepting the Irish, which show none, while the proportion who have been here under ten years is largest for the Greeks, Lithuanians, and Poles, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the French Canadians, excepting the Irish, which show none. None of the Irish have been here either under five years or under ten years, and 98.1 per cent of the Greeks have been here under ten years. Over 95 per cent of the Greeks, Lithuanians, Poles, South Italians, Hebrews, and Armenians have been in the United States under twenty years, as against 35 per cent of the Irish and 38.4 per cent of the French Canadians.

CHAPTER XV.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-General

occupation of males at present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Comparison of occupations of the first and second generations-Occupations entered in the industryAnnual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied--Annual family income-Wives at workRelation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers--Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income-[Text Tables 194 to 213 and General Tables 126 to 135).

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering into a discussion of the economic status of households, the heads of which were employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in Community B, the industrial condition and principal occupations of foreign-born employees and members of their households while abroad are set forth. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country: Table 194.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born

males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by sex and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the foreign-born males in this locality 16 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States for whom information was secured 38.4 per cent worked abroad without wages, a slightly smaller proportion worked for wages, 17.9 per cent worked for 48296° — VOL 12-11-30

455

profit, and only 9.2 per cent were without occupation. The proportion of individuals who worked without wages is much larger among the Lithuanians and Poles_than among the other races, while the French Canadians, South Italians, and Hebrews have the largest and the Lithuanians by far the smallest proportion of individuals who worked for wages. The proportion of individuals who worked for profit is largest for the Hebrews, Greeks, and South Italians, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Lithuanians and French Canadians.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming:

Table 195.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The data presented in the above table show that of the foreign-bom males 16 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States for whom complete information was secured, a very large proportion worked either for wages or without wages before coming. *Of the individuals who worked for wages the majority were either farm laborers or in occupations of a nature not specified, while of the individuals who worked without wages almost all were farm laborers. The proportion of farm laborers working for wages is largest in the case of the Armenians, South Italians, and Poles, in the order mentioned, and smallest in the case of the Hebrews, Lithuanians and Greeks, while a much larger proportion of the Lithuanians and the Poles than of the individuals of any other race are reported as farm laborers working without wages. Of the individuals who worked abroad for profit nearly one-half were farmers.

The table next presented shows, by sex and race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreignborn females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

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