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CHAPTER XV.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-General occupation of males at present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Comparison of occupations of the first and second generations-Occupations entered in the industryAnnual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at workRelation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income-[Text Tables 194 to 213 and General Tables 126 to 135].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering into a discussion of the economic status of households, the heads of which were employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in Community B, the industrial condition and principal occupations of foreign-born employees and members of their households while abroad are set forth. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country:

TABLE 194.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by sex and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the foreign-born males in this locality 16 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States for whom information was secured 38.4 per cent worked abroad without wages, a slightly smaller proportion worked for wages, 17.9 per cent worked for

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profit, and only 9.2 per cent were without occupation. The proportion of individuals who worked without wages is much larger among the Lithuanians and Poles than among the other races, while the French Canadians, South Italians, and Hebrews have the largest and the Lithuanians by far the smallest proportion of individuals who worked for wages. The proportion of individuals who worked for profit is largest for the Hebrews, Greeks, and South Italians, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Lithuanians and French Canadians.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming:

TABLE 195.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The data presented in the above table show that of the foreign-born males 16 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States for whom complete information was secured, a very large proportion worked either for wages or without wages before coming. Of the individuals who worked for wages the majority were either farm laborers or in occupations of a nature not specified, while of the individuals who worked without wages almost all were farm laborers. The proportion of farm laborers working for wages is largest in the case of the Armenians, South Italians, and Poles, in the order mentioned, and smallest in the case of the Hebrews, Lithuanians and Greeks, while a much larger proportion of the Lithuanians and the Poles than of the individuals of any other race are reported as farm laborers working without wages. Of the individuals who worked abroad for profit nearly one-half were farmers.

The table next presented shows, by sex and race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreignborn females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 196.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races, with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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The data presented in the above table show that slightly over one-half of the females in this locality who came to the United States when 16 years of age or over were without occupation abroad, while 31.2 per cent worked without wages, 15.4 per cent worked for wages, and between 2 and 3 per cent worked for profit. The proportion of females without occupation abroad is very much greater for the French Canadians, South Italians, and Hebrews than for the Lithuanians and Poles. The two races last mentioned have, upon the other hand, by far the largest proportion of individuals who worked without wages.

In the following table the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, is shown according to race of individual:

TABLE 197.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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Slightly over one-half of the females in this locality for whom information was secured, 16 years or over at the time of coming to the United States, were without occupation abroad, 31.2 per cent worked without wages, 15.4 per cent worked for wages, and 2.3 per cent worked for profit. Of the individuals working without wages, practically all were farm laborers. It will be noted that the proportion of females so occupied is very much larger for the Lithuanians and the Poles than for any other race.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

Two tabulations are next presented relative to the present industrial status of the employees and members of their households. The first table, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of males 16 years of age or over in the households studied:

TABLE 198.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The above table shows that in this locality of the males 16 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 69.1 per cent are employed in manufacturing shoes, 28.6 per cent are otherwise employed, and only a very small proportion are at home or at school. The proportion of individuals employed in manufacturing shoes is largest for the native-born of native father, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the foreign-born, while the proportion in employments not specified is largest for the foreignborn, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born, the French Canadians, South Italians, and Hebrews, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and the Poles and Armenians the smallest proportion of individuals employed in manufacturing shoes, and the

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