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CHAPTER XIV.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of members of immigrant households studied-[Text Tables 192 to 193 and General Table 125].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

Data showing in detail the movement of immigrant races to Community B are, unfortunately, unavailable. The Massachusetts State census, however, classifies the population of the city, by country of birth, in the census years 1855, 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, and 1905. From these figures it is possible to determine, in a general way, the history of immigration to the community. The data are presented in the following table:

TABLE 192.-Population of Community B, in years in which a State census was taken, by country of birth.

[Compiled from the Massachusetts State census on population.]

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•Includes all British America. b Includes West Indies. • Includes Holland.

d Includes Sweden.

TABLE 192.-Population of Community B, in years in which a State census was taken, by country of birth-Continued.

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Grand total.

7,932 10,740 14,628 21,795 30,209

37,830

In the fifty years from 1855 to 1905 the population of Community B increased from 7,932 to 37,830. The proportion of foreign-born inhabitants, which in 1855 was less than 14 per cent, had increased in 1905 to about 23 per cent. Persons of Scotch, English, Irish, and Canadian nativity were the first immigrants to come to the community, and immigration of this character continued heavy up to and including the last year for which the figures are presented. Many of the Canadian immigrants have been of French descent. There have been very few Germans or Scandinavians in Community B at any period. Immigration from Russia, Italy, Austria, and the other countries of southern and eastern Europe began after 1885. Between 1895 and 1905 there was a marked increase in the immigration of this character, but even in the year last mentioned the number of southern and eastern Europeans in the community was small in comparison with the number of immigrants of British, Irish, and Canadian nativity. Persons born in Canada of French descent, in Ireland, in Nova Scotia, in Russia, and in Italy had, in the order mentioned, the largest representation among the foreign-born population of the community in 1905.

As further illustrative of the history of immigration to the industry in Community B, the racial displacements to representative establishments may be set forth. These are designated by numerals and immediately follow:

PLANT NO. 1.

Plant No. 1, in Community B, in which shoe findings are manufactured, was established about ten years ago. Practically all of the races now represented, together with the Irish, were employed when the plant first began operations. The Greeks have been employed only within the last five years, while all of the Irish and very nearly all of the native Americans who were formerly employed have left the plant to accept work, in most instances, in the more skilled occupations of the same industry. The native Americans and Irish were not forced out, but voluntarily left this plant as they became older

and more capable, and their places were gradually filled by the more recent immigrants. At the present time the racial complexion of the laboring force of this plant is as follows:

Greek 33, Hebrew 30, Italian 6, native American 4, and Polish 1. Thus it will be seen that the Greeks and Hebrews constitute over 85 per cent of the total number employed.

PLANT NO. 2.

Plant No. 2, in Community B, in which men's shoes are manufactured, has been in operation for forty years. When operations were first begun native American whites and Irish were employed exclusively. About thirty years ago the French Canadians secured their first employment. A little later on the Hebrews entered this plant, and they in turn were closely followed by the Italians. It has only been within the last fifteen years that the Lithuanians and Poles have secured employment, while the Greeks were first employed in this plant upon their arrival in the community five years ago. There has been no sudden change in the racial complexion of the employees in plant No. 2, for the more recent immigrants have gradually worked in as the business expanded. Therefore no displacement of the native Americans or older immigrant employees can be said to have taken place. As occasion demanded and the more recent immigrants sought employment, they were employed without any discrimination whatever for or against any particular race. Of the few older employees who have gone out of this plant some, it is said, have gone into the Middle West and have been employed in the same industry in the capacity of foremen and superintendents. Although by far the largest number of employees of this plant are classed by those in authority as native American whites, it is more than likely that the largest proportion of those so designated are the second generation of the older immigrants from northern Europe. Of the non-Englishspeaking races employed at present the French Canadian largely outnumber any other. Following the French Canadian is the Hebrew, the representatives of which constitute a much larger proportion of the total number of employees than do the representatives of the Greek, Italian, Armenian, Lithuanian, Polish, or Syrian race in the order named.

PLANT No. 3.

Twenty years ago when plant No. 3, in which womens' "turned" shoes and slippers are manufactured, was established in Community B, it was the custom among shoe manufacturers to send the uppers and soles out into the houses of the farmers and cobblers to be stitched together by hand. With the invention and perfection of a sewing machine for this purpose this method was changed. The manufacturers found they could better control the work and that the output would be largely increased by having all labor done within the factory. Since the manufacturers owned the machines and the outside cobblers were without sufficient capital to install them, it became necessary for those who had previously been employed to move into the city, provided they wished to continue in the same trade. It was fifteen years ago, or just about the time shoe-stitching machinery was adopted, that the Irish obtained their first employ

ment in this factory. Their entrance was coincident with the expansion of the factory work and the withdrawal from the shoemaking trade of the native American country people, which resulted from concentrating all labor necessary in manufacturing shoes in factories. Following closely upon the employment of the Irish were the French Canadians, who, with the exception of the native Americans, constitute at this time a larger proportion of all employees than do the representatives of any other race. The representatives of the other races, who, in each instance, constitute only a small proportion of the total number employed, have obtained employment in this factory from time to time, but not in sufficient numbers to be considered a factor in the operation of same. As showing the present composition of the employees the following statement, which exhibits, by race of individual, the number of each race in the specified occupations, is submitted:

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PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

An insight into the character of recent immigration to the community is also furnished by the following table, which shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 193.—Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

Per cent of persons in United States each specified number of years.

Armenian..

Canadian, French.

Greek.

Hebrew.

Irish..

Italian, North.

Italian, South.

Lithuanian..
Polish.....

Total..

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789

36.6

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Of the foreign-born persons in this locality for whom information was secured 36.6 per cent have been in the United States under five years; 59.8 per cent have been here under ten years; and 86.4 per cent have been here under twenty years. The proportion of individuals who have been in the United States under five years is largest for the Greeks, Poles, and Lithuanians, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the French Canadians, excepting the Irish, which show none, while the proportion who have been here under ten years is largest for the Greeks, Lithuanians, and Poles, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the French Canadians, excepting the Irish, which show none. None of the Irish have been here either under five years or under ten years, and 98.1 per cent of the Greeks have been here under ten years. Over 95 per cent of the Greeks, Lithuanians, Poles, South Italians, Hebrews, and Armenians have been in the United States under twenty years, as against 35 per cent of the Irish and 38.4 per cent of the French Canadians.

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