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Táble 190.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

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The above table shows that of the individuals for whom information was secured, 54 per cent are males, and that the proportion of males is higher in the foreign-born households than in the households of the persons native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born, the Greek, Polish, and Lithuanian households, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and the Irish, Hebrew, and North Italian households the smallest proportion of males; in the households of the three races last mentioned the proportion of females is slightly larger than in the households of the native-born of native father.

The table below exhibits, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the persons for whom detailed information was secured in the households studied:

TABLE 191.-Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general

nativity and race of individual.

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TABLE 191.- Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general

nativity and race of individual-Continued.

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The above table shows that of the individuals in this locality for whom detailed information was secured, 64 per cent of the males and 52.3 per cent of the females are foreign-born; 31.3 per cent of the males and 42.2 per cent of the females are native-born of foreign father, and only 4.7 per cent of the males and 5.5 per cent of the females are native-born of native father. Of the races of the foreignborn, the Lithuanians, French Canadians, South Italians, Poles, and Hebrews, in the order mentioned, have the largest representation among the males, and the Hebrews, French Canadians, South Italian and Lithuanians, and Poles, in the order mentioned, have the largest representation among the females. The French Canadians, both males and females, have been studied in greater numbers than any other race of the native-born of foreign father.

CHAPTER XIV.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration Period of residence in the United States of members of

immigrant households studied—[Text Tables 192 to 193 and General Table 125).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

Data showing in detail the movement of immigrant races to Community B are, unfortunately, unavailable. The Massachusetts State census, however, classifies the population of the city, by country of birth, in the census years 1855, 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, and 1905. From these figures it is possible to determine, in a general way, the history of immigration to the community. The data are presented in the following table:

TABLE 192.Population of Community B, in years in which a State census was taken,

by country of birth.

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19512

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Native-born.....

6,858 9,304 12, 462 17,634 22,831 28, 971 Foreign-born, by country of birth: Africa..

1

1 Armenia.

16 Australia. Austria..

2

43 Asia, not specified.

3 Belgium.

1 British possessions, not specified.

6

5 Bulgaria.. Canada (English).

a 96 a 282 a 683

324
901

300 Canada (French).

1,183 2,357 2, 026 China..

6

18 Cuba.

04 Denmark

1

11

20 England.

115
105
185
320
511

484 Finland. France.

6
4
3
9
12

22 Germany

c12

8
13
47

87 Greece.

6

114 Hawaii. Holland

1 Hungary.

11 Ireland.

821

977 1,176 1,556 1,920 1,969 Italy.

2
36
204

618 Japan.

1 Mexico.

1 New Brunswick.

87
122

293 Newfoundland

2
14

11 Norway.

1

d4

2

11 Nova Scotia.

392

389 1,150 Poland.

2
68

69 Portugal.

1

2 Portuguese possessions Prince Edward Island.

34
53

207 Roumania.

9 Russia...

378

924 Includes all British America. o Includes West Indies. c Includes Holland. d Includes Sweden.

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TABLE 192.- Population of Community B, in years in which a State census was taken,

by country of birth-Continued.

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In the fifty years from 1855 to 1905 the population of Community B increased from 7,932 to 37,830. The proportion of foreign-born inhabitants, which in 1855 was less than 14 per cent, had increased in 1905 to about 23 per cent. Persons of Scotch, English, Irish, and Canadian nativity were the first immigrants to come to the community, and immigration of this character continued heavy up to and including the last year for which the figures are presented. Many of the Canadian immigrants have been of French descent. There have been very few Germans or Scandinavians in Community B at any period. Immigration from Russia, Italy, Austria, and the other countries of southern and eastern Europe began after 1885. Between 1895 and 1905 there was a marked increase in the immigration of this character, but even in the year last mentioned the number of southern and eastern Europeans in the community was small in comparison with the number of immigrants of British, Irish; and Canadian nativity. Persons born in Canada of French descent, in Ireland, in Nova Scotia, in Russia, and in Italy had, in the order mentioned, the largest representation among the foreign-born population of the community in 1905.

As further illustrative of the history of immigration to the industry in Community B, the racial displacements to representative establishments may be set forth. These are designated by numerals and immediately follow:

PLANT No. 1.

Plant No. 1, in Community B, in which shoe findings are manufactured, was established about ten years ago. Practically all of the races now represented, together with the Irish, were employed when the plant first began operations. The Greeks have been employed only within the last five years, while all of the Irish and very nearly all of the native Americans who were formerly employed have left the plant to accept work, in most instances, in the more skilled occupations of the same industry. The native Americans and Irish were not forced out, but voluntarily left this plant as they became older

and more capable, and their places were gradually filled by the more recent immigrants. At the present time the racial complexion of the laboring force of this plant is as follows:

Greek 33, Hebrew 30, Italian 6, native American 4, and Polish 1. Thus it will be seen that the Greeks and Hebrews constitute over 85 per cent of the total number employed.

PLANT No. 2.

Plant No. 2, in Community B, in which men's shoes are manufactured, has been in operation for forty years. When operations were first begun native American whites and Irish were employed exclusively. About thirty years ago the French Canadians secured their first employment. A little later on the Hebrews entered this plant, and they in turn were closely followed by the Italians. It has only been within the last fifteen years that the Lithuanians and Poles have secured employment, while the Greeks were first employed in this plant upon their arrival in the community five years ago. There has been no sudden change in the racial complexion of the employees in plant No. 2, for the more recent immigrants have gradually worked in as the business expanded. Therefore no displacement of the native Americans or older immigrant employees can be said to have taken place. As occasion demanded and the more recent immigrants sought employment, they were employed without any discrimination whatever for or against any particular race.

Of the few older employees who have gone out of this plant some, it is said, have gone into the Middle West and have been employed in the same industry in the capacity of foremen and superintendents. Although by far the largest number of employees of this plant are classed by those in authority as native American whites, it is more than likely that the largest proportion of those so designated are the second generation of the older immigrants from northern Europe. Of the non-Englishspeaking races employed at present the French Canadian largely outnumber any other. Following the French Canadian is the Hebrew, the representatives of which constitute a much larger proportion of the total number of employees than do the representatives of the Greek, Italian, Armenian, Lithuanian, Polish, or Syrian race in the order named.

PLANT No. 3.

Twenty years ago when plant No. 3, in which womens' “turned” shoes and slippers are manufactured, was established in Community B, it was the custom among shoe manufacturers to send the uppers and soles out into the houses of the farmers and cobblers to be stitched together by hand. With the invention and perfection of a sewing machine for this purpose this method was changed. The manufacturers found they could better control the work and that the output would be largely increased by having all labor done within the factory. Since the manufacturers owned the machines and the outside cobblers were without sufficient capital to install them, it became necessary for those who had previously been employed to move into the city, provided they wished to continue in the same trade. It was fifteen years ago, or just about the time shoe-stitching machinery was adopted, that the Irish obtained their first employ

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