Lapas attēli
PDF
ePub

per cent,

years, the South Italians show the smallest proportion, 78.6 of English-speaking persons. Only 81 per cent of the Lithuanians in this group speak English, as compared with 100 per cent of the Syrians and between 90 and 100 per cent of the other races, excepting the Greeks, who reported in numbers too small for computation.

The following table shows, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English:

Table 186.- Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of

coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reportin:. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

[blocks in formation]

In the above table 1,286 individuals report that 83.6 per cent speak English regardless of age at time of coming to the United States. Of those who were under 14 years of age at time of immigrating 98.5 per cent speak English, while of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming, only 79.7 per cent do so. All of the South Italians, 99.3 per cent of the French Canadians, and 97.9 per cent of the Russian Hebrews who were under 14 years of age at time of coming speak English. On the other hand, it will be observed that only 54.8 per cent of the South Italians who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming speak English, as against over 90 per cent for the other two races reported in this table. Comparing the sexes, no great difference is observed between the ability of males and females to speak English among those who came here under 14 years of age. But of those who were 14 years of age or over the males show somewhat greater proportions able to speak English. Of the males, all of the Russian Hebrews and South Italians and 98.9 per cent of the French Canadians speak English. Of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming only 57.3 per cent of the South Italians speak English, as compared with 100 per cent for representatives of the same race who were under 14 years of age at time of coming. Of the Russian Hebrews 93.3 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming speak English, compared with 100

per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at time of immigrating. An exception to the rule is noted in the case of the French Canadians, a slightly greater proportion of whom speak English who were 14 years of age or over at time of arrival than of those who were under 14. This exception is true only as to the males.

The following table shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English: TABLE 187.Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the

United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speakirg races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

MALE.

[blocks in formation]

Of the 1,286 employees reporting in this table 83.6 per cent speak English. Of those who have been here under five years, 68.1 per cent speak English; of those with a residence of from five to nine years the proportion speaking English is 86.7 per cent, while of those who have been here ten years or over 96.1 per cent speak English. The French Canadians, with 95 per cent, show the highest proportion speaking English among those who have been here under five years. The Russian Hebrew, with 87.6 per cent, is next, while the South Italian is last with only 29.2 per cent. Among those who have been here from five to nine years, the Russian Hebrew, with 97.4 per cent, shows the highest; the French Canadian, with 93.8 per cent, the second highest; and the South Italian, with 73.4 percent, the lowest proportion speaking English. All of the Russian Hebrews, 99.5 per cent of the French Canadians, and 82.1 per cent of the South Italians who have been here ten years or over speak English. The figures of this table indicate a pronounced increase in the proportion of those speaking English as the years of residence in the United States increases. Of the three specified races the males show a higher proportion who speak English than do the females. However, 100 per cent of Canadian females who have been here under five years speak English, as against 92.3 per cent of males who have been here a similar length of time. Also all Russian Hebrew females who have been here from five to nine years speak English, as compared with 96.8 per cent of Russian Hebrew males with an equal residence period, and all females who have been here ten years or over are reported as speaking English, while of the males the Russian Hebrews alone report 100 per cent in that respect.

REPRESENTATIVE COMMUNITY B.

CHAPTER XIII.

INTRODUCTION. Industrial significance of the community-Households studied-Members of house

holds for whom detailed information was secured-[Text Tables 188 to 191 and General Tables 123 to 124).

INDUSTRIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COMMUNITY. In 1905 Community B ranked fourth among the boot and shoe manufacturing cities of the United States.

Not only is Community B one of the principal boot and shoe manufacturing cities in the United States, but the manufacture of boots and shoes is by all odds the most important industry of the city. In 1905 the value of boots and shoes manufactured equaled 62.4

per cent of the total value of all the manufactures of the city. This figure indicates the relative importance of the industry.

There were in the city in 1905 108 boot and shoe manufacturing establishments, with a total capital of $4,900,839. Of the 6,591 wageearners employed in these establishments 4,359 were men 16 years of age or over, 2,181 were women 16 years of age or over, and 51 were children under 16 years of age. In the course of the year the men received in wages $2,502,498, the women $966,331, the children $12,594, and all employees combined $3,481,423. The materials used in the industry in 1905 cost $8,448,355, and the total value of products was $15,257,899.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The statistical basis of the study of Community B consists of the data obtained from the households, of which 247 were studied in detail. The number of households studied, according to general nativity and race of head of household, is shown in the table below: Table 188.-Households studied, by general nativity and ruce of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[blocks in formation]

Native born of native father,

White....
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Canadian, French
Greek.
Hebrew
Irish.
Italian, North

13.4 11.7 8.1

17 57

247

6.9 23. 1

4.9 13.8 4.0 4.5

100.0

34
10
11

Total native-born..
Total foreign-born...

24 223

9.7 90.3

Classified according to race of head 90.3 per cent of the households studied in this locality are foreign-born. The representation of the foreign-born races ranges from 23.1 per cent for the French Canadians, 13.8 per cent for the Hebrews, and 13.4 for the South Italians, to 4.5 per cent for the North Italians and only 4 per cent for the Irish.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS

SECURED.

The table next presented sets forth, by general nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured.

TABLE 189.—Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information

ecured, by general nativity and race of heud of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

was secu

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

The above table shows that 94.2 per cent of the individuals in the households studied were of foreign birth, the remainder being nativeborn of native father. The French Canadians, Hebrews, South Italians, and Lithuanians have the largest and the Irish and North Italians the smallest representation among the foreign-born. Of the individuals for whom detailed information was secured 95.2 per cent of the males and 93.4 per cent of the females are foreign-born, the proportion of the individuals, both males and females, of each race being about the same as in the case of all persons in households.

The table next presented shows the sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »