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years, the Russian Hebrew, with 97.4 per cent, shows the highest; the French Canadian, with 93.8 per cent, the second highest; and the South Italian, with 73.4 per cent, the lowest proportion speaking English. All of the Russian Hebrews, 99.5 per cent of the French Canadians, and 82.1 per cent of the South Italians who have been here ten years or over speak English. The figures of this table indicate a pronounced increase in the proportion of those speaking English as the years of residence in the United States increases. Of the three specified races the males show a higher proportion who speak English than do the females. However, 100 per cent of Canadian females who have been here under five years speak English, as against 92.3 per cent of males who have been here a similar length of time. Also all Russian Hebrew females who have been here from five to nine years speak English, as compared with 96.8 per cent of Russian Hebrew males with an equal residence period, and all females who have been here ten years or over are reported as speaking English, while of the males the Russian Hebrews alone report 100 per cent in that respect.

REPRESENTATIVE COMMUNITY B.

CHAPTER XIII.

INTRODUCTION.

Industrial significance of the community-Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-[Text Tables 188 to 191 and General Tables 123 to 124].

INDUSTRIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COMMUNITY.

In 1905 Community B ranked fourth among the boot and shoe manufacturing cities of the United States.

Not only is Community B one of the principal boot and shoe manufacturing cities in the United States, but the manufacture of boots and shoes is by all odds the most important industry of the city. In 1905 the value of boots and shoes manufactured equaled 62.4 per cent of the total value of all the manufactures of the city. This figure indicates the relative importance of the industry.

There were in the city in 1905 108 boot and shoe manufacturing establishments, with a total capital of $4,900,839. Of the 6,591 wageearners employed in these establishments 4,359 were men 16 years of age or over, 2,181 were women 16 years of age or over, and 51 were children under 16 years of age. In the course of the year the men received in wages $2,502,498, the women $966,331, the children $12,594, and all employees combined $3,481,423. The materials used in the industry in 1905 cost $8,448,355, and the total value of products was $15,257,899.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The statistical basis of the study of Community B consists of the data obtained from the households, of which 247 were studied in detail. The number of households studied, according to general nativity and race of head of household, is shown in the table below:

TABLE 188.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Classified according to race of head 90.3 per cent of the households studied in this locality are foreign-born. The representation of the foreign-born races ranges from 23.1 per cent for the French Canadians, 13.8 per cent for the Hebrews, and 13.4 for the South Italians, to 4.5 per cent for the North Italians and only 4 per cent for the Irish.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

The table next presented sets forth, by general nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured.

TABLE 189.-Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

24

78

5.8

17

101

7.4

57

292

21.5

12

61

4.5

34

185

13.6

10

55

4. 1

11

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1,278

94. 2

The above table shows that 94.2 per cent of the individuals in the households studied were of foreign birth, the remainder being nativeborn of native father. The French Canadians, Hebrews, South Italians, and Lithuanians have the largest and the Irish and North Italians the smallest representation among the foreign-born. Of the individuals for whom detailed information was secured 95.2 per cent of the males and 93.4 per cent of the females are foreign-born, the proportion of the individuals, both males and females, of each race being about the same as in the case of all persons in households.

The table next presented shows the sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 190.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The above table shows that of the individuals for whom information was secured, 54 per cent are males, and that the proportion of males is higher in the foreign-born households than in the households of the persons native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born, the Greek, Polish, and Lithuanian households, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and the Irish, Hebrew, and North Italian households the smallest proportion of males; in the households of the three races last mentioned the proportion of females is slightly larger than in the households of the native-born of native father.

The table below exhibits, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the persons for whom detailed information was secured in the households studied:

TABLE 191.-Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

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TABLE 191.—Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual-Continued.

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The above table shows that of the individuals in this locality for whom detailed information was secured, 64 per cent of the males and 52.3 per cent of the females are foreign-born; 31.3 per cent of the males and 42.2 per cent of the females are native-born of foreign father, and only 4.7 per cent of the males and 5.5 per cent of the females are native-born of native father. Of the races of the foreignborn, the Lithuanians, French Canadians, South Italians, Poles, and Hebrews, in the order mentioned, have the largest representation among the males, and the Hebrews, French Canadians, South Italian and Lithuanians, and Poles, in the order mentioned, have the largest representation among the females. The French Canadians, both males and females, have been studied in greater numbers than any other race of the native-born of foreign father.

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