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Of a total of 177 foreign-born males for whom information was obtained, 48, or 27.1 per cent, are fully naturalized and 28, or 15.8 per cent, have first papers only, leaving 57.1 per cent who have manifested no interest whatever in naturalization. Over 50 per cent of the Armenians have taken out first papers as compared with slightly less than 25 per cent of the Hebrews and less than 10 per cent each of the South Italians and Lithuanians. The Hebrews show the largest proportion who have first papers only, just half their numbers. Almost 20 per cent of the South Italians have first papers as compared with a slightly smaller proportion of the Armenians. None of the other races listed in the preceding table reported in numbers large enough to be representative..

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons in the households studied 6 years of age or over who speak English:

TABLE 182.-Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Total foreign-born...

602

449

77.6

68.2

1,051

55.7

Of a total of 1,218 persons, male and female, information for whom is included in the above table, 72.6 per cent speak English. The males show a much larger proportion of English-speaking persons than do the females. For the males the proportion is 80.6 per cent and for the females it is 61.9 per cent. All of the persons, male and female, who are native-born of foreign father speak English. Of the foreign-born males 77.6 per cent speak English and of the females 55.7 per cent speak English. Of the foreign-born races, the French Canadians show the largest proportion who speak English, 93.5 per cent, and the Poles show the smallest proportion, 45.7 per cent. Of the foreign-born males, all of the Syrians and French Canadians speak English and over 50 per cent each of every other race. Of the foreign

48296°-VOL 12-11-29

born females, the French Canadians, of whom 88 per cent speak English, show the largest proportion. The Hebrews, South Italians, and Syrians each show a proportion that is greater than 50 per cent. The smallest proportion is shown by the Greeks. Of the females of that race only 26.7 per cent speak English.

The following table shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who speak English:

TABLE 183.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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The foregoing table shows a report from 1,286 persons, 1,065 of whom are males and 221 females. Of the total number 83.6 per cent speak English and practically the same proportion of each sex does So. The French Canadians with 98.5 per cent speaking English and the Russian Hebrew with 92.2 per cent show the highest proportion in this regard. Then comes the North Italian with 77.6 per cent and the Greeks and South Italian with 63.3 per cent and 60.2 per cent, respectively. Comparing the sexes it is seen that in all races, excepting the North Italian, a larger proportion of males are reported as speaking the language than females.

The progress of younger and older immigrants in acquiring an ability to speak English is considered in the two tables next submitted. The first of these tables shows, by race of individual and age at time of coming to the United States, the percentage of foreignborn persons 6 years of age or over who speak English:

TABLE 184.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Polish.

Syrian..

124

96.6

62.1

139

100.0

87.0

85

91.7

45.2

204

89.7

70.5

161

92.5

61.2

152

100.0

48.2

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Total.

100.0

88.4

1,051

95.4

60.3

Of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to this country 95.4 per cent now speak English, while of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming only 60.3 per cent now speak English. Of those who were under 14 at time of coming all of the French Canadians, Lithuanians, Poles, and Syrians now speak English. Each of the other races, excepting the Hebrews, show a proportion of between 90 and 100 per cent, the proportion for the Hebrews being 89.7 per cent. Of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States the Syrians show the largest proportion of persons who now speak English. It is 88.4 per cent. The French Canadians show a proportion that is almost as large. In this group the smallest proportion is shown by the Poles, the Lithuanians and Greeks showing a proportion that is almost as small.

The progress made by persons of non-English-speaking races in acquiring the ability to speak English, after designated periods of residence in the country, is set forth in the following table. It shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over in the households studied who speak English:

TABLE 185.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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Syrian..

124

56.3

70.4

97.0

139

80.0

85.7

96.3

85

30.6

78.1

(a)

204

64.6

83.7

97.6

161

60.3

76.4

78.6

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Total

78.9

94.4

100.0

1,051

50.5

74.3

93.6

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Slightly more than 50 per cent of the persons, information for whom is included in the above table and who have been in the United States for less than five years, speak English; of those who have been here from five to nine years, 74.3 per cent speak English, and of those who have been in this country for ten or more years, 93.6 per cent speak English. Among those who have been here under five years, the French Canadians show the largest proportion, 80 per cent, of Englishspeaking persons. Every race represented in this period of residence, excepting the Greeks, Lithuanians, and Poles, show a proportion of more than 50 per cent who speak English. Among those who have been here from five to nine years, the Syrians show the largest proportion, 94.4 per cent, and the Lithuanians the smallest, 58.1 per cent. Among the persons who have been in the United States for ten or more

years, the South Italians show the smallest proportion, 78.6 per cent, of English-speaking persons. Only 81 per cent of the Lithuanians in this group speak English, as compared with 100 per cent of the Syrians and between 90 and 100 per cent of the other races, excepting the Greeks, who reported in numbers too small for computation.

The following table shows, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English:

TABLE 186.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Total..

1.286

98.5

79.7

83.6

In the above table 1,286 individuals report that 83.6 per cent speak English regardless of age at time of coming to the United States. Of those who were under 14 years of age at time of immigrating 98.5 per cent speak English, while of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming, only 79.7 per cent do so. All of the South Italians, 99.3 per cent of the French Canadians, and 97.9 per cent of the Russian Hebrews who were under 14 years of age at time of coming speak English. On the other hand, it will be observed that only 54.8 per cent of the South Italians who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming speak English, as against over 90 per cent for the other two races reported in this table. Comparing the sexes, no great difference is observed between the ability of males and females to speak English among those who came here under 14 years. of age. But of those who were 14 years of age or over the males show somewhat greater proportions able to speak English. Of

the males, all of the Russian Hebrews and South Italians and 98.9 per cent of the French Canadians speak English. Of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming only 57.3 per cent of the South Italians speak English, as compared with 100 per cent for representatives of the same race who were under 14 years of age at time of coming. Of the Russian Hebrews 93.3 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming speak English, compared with 100 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at time of immigrating. An exception to the rule is noted in the case of the French Canadians, a slightly greater proportion of whom speak English who were 14 years of age or over at time of arrival than of those who were under 14. This exception is true only as to the males. The following table shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English: TABLE 187.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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Italian, South..

MALE.

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246

29.2

73.4

60.2

Total..

82.1

1,286

68.1

86.7

96. 1

83.6

Of the 1,286 employees reporting in this table 83.6 per cent speak English. Of those who have been here under five years, 68.1 per cent speak English; of those with a residence of from five to nine years the proportion speaking English is 86.7 per cent, while of those who have been here ten years or over 96.1 per cent speak English. The French Canadians, with 95 per cent, show the highest proportion speaking English among those who have been here under five years. The Russian Hebrew, with 87.6 per cent, is next, while the South Italian is last with only 29.2 per cent. Among those who have been here from five to nine

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