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smaller proportion of males who read and write than any other foreignborn race. They also show the smallest proportion of foreign-born females who read and write.

The relation between literacy and period of residence in this country is indicated by the following table. The table shows the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and the per cent who read and write, by race of individual and years of residence in the United States:

TABLE 166.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Syrian..

53

88.9

61.1

72.2

100.0

83.3

94.1

Total.

1,134

80.9

84.1

93.5

74.3

79.3

90.6

• Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the 1,134 foreign-born persons, 10 years of age or over, included in the above table, 80.9 per cent of those with a period of residence in the United States of less than five years, 84.1 per cent of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years, and 93.5 per cent of those with a period of residence of ten years or over, can read. The proportion who both read and write is smaller in each instance. than the proportion who read. Although the proportion of the total number who read, as well as the proportion who both read and write, increases with length of residence in the United States, certain races show a larger proportion of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years than of those with a period of residence of ten years or over. Among the Poles who read, and the French Canadians who read and write, the proportion of those with a period of residence of less than five years is larger than the proportion of those with a period of residence of ten years or over.

The progress made by the younger immigrants, as compared with the older immigrants, is shown by the table next presented. This table indicates the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over, in the households studied, who read, and the per cent who both read and write, according to race of individual and age at time of coming to the United States.

TABLE 167.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Total.

1,134

97.8

83.1

96.4

77.3

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

A larger proportion of the persons who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States than of those who were 14 years of age or over can now read. All the Armenians, English, Greeks, Hebrews, South Italians, and Lithuanians who were under 14 at time of coming can now read. The Irish show the smallest proportion, 89.7 per cent. All of the English persons who were 14. years of age or over at time of coming to this country can now read. The smallest proportion among that group is shown by the Greeks, 71.2 per cent.

Of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming, 96.4 per cent can both read and write, and of those who were 14 or over 77.3 per cent can read and write. In the first group all of the Armenians, English, Greeks, Hebrews, South Italians, and Lithuanians can read and write, and in the second group all of the English can read and write. The Syrians show the smallest proportion of persons who can read and write of those who were under 14 at time of coming to this country and the Lithuanians show the smallest proportion of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of male employees 20 years of age or over who were in each conjugal condition.

TABLE 168.-Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Among the employees 20 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 61.9 per cent of the males and 36.7 per cent of the females are married, and 4.7 per cent of the males and 12.9 per cent of the females are widowed. The proportion of married employees, both males and females, and the proportion of widowed females, is largest for those native-born of native father, second largest for the foreign-born, and smallest for those who were native-born of foreign father. The proportion of widowed males is largest for the nativeborn of native father, second in rank for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the foreign-born. Among the foreign-born, the Canadians, other than French, English, and French Canadians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Russian Hebrews and Irish the smallest proportions of married males, and the English, South Italians, and North Italians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Russian Hebrews and Irish the smallest proportions of married females.

The following table further classifies the figures of the one preceding and shows the percentage of employees in each conjugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race, and by age groups:

TABLE 169.-Per cent of employees in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 200 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Native-born of native fa-
ther, White.
Native-born of foreign fa-
ther, by country of
birth of father:
Canada..
Ireland...
Foreign-born, by race:
Canadian, French..
Canadian, Other.
Hebrew, Russian..
Italian, South.

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93 62.4 36.6 1.1

.0 81 17.3 77.8 4.9

45 2.295.6 2.2
35 5.7 82.9 11. 4
5 (a) (a) (a)

26

157 35.0 61.8 3.2 270 43. 751.9 4.4

188 28.2 67.6 4.3 140 23.670.7 5.7 202 42.657.4 .0 200 36.0 61.0 3.0

Grand total...................

Total native-born of for

eign father..

Total native-born.

Total foreign-born..

.096.2 3.8

1, 120 59.938.8 1.3 1,235 21.074.0 5.0

229 65.5 34. 1
564 56.4 42.0 1.6
556 63.5 35. 6 .9

248 27.4 65.7 6.9
705 21.7 71.8 6.5
530 20.0 77.0 3.0

545 7.082.0 11.0 2,900 33. 461.9 4.7

83 13.3 78.3 8.4 353 7.6 80.2 12.2 192 5.7 85.4 8.9

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

560 40.954.6 4.5 1,622 30.7 63.3 6.0 1,278 36.860.3 3.0

TABLE 169.—Per cent of employees in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and by general nativity and race-Continued.

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Number reporting
complete data.

who

Per cent

Number reporting
complete data.

age.

Per cent

Number reporting
complete data.

Per cent

Number reporting

complete data.

Per cent

General nativity and

race.

Native-born of native fa-
ther, White.
Native-born of foreign fa-
ther, by country of
birth of father:
Canada..
Ireland...

Foreign-born, by race:
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other..
Hebrew, Russian..
Italian, South...

Grand total....

Total native-born of for-
eign father.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

Single.

Married.

Widowed.

are

Single.

Married.

Widowed.

who are

Single.

Married.

Widowed.

who are

Single.

Married.

Widowed.

who are

242 62.0 33.9 4.1

200 27.5 51.0 21.5

101 26.7 36.636. 6 543 42.7 40.7 16. 6

4 (a) (a) (a) 13 53.8 7.7 38.5

46 67.4 30.4 2.2
106 81. 1 17.0 1.9

20 25.0 65.0 10. 0
80 55.0 35.0 10. 0

40 70.0 30. 0 .0
57 66.7 28.1 5.3
31 77.4 16.1 6.5
10 70.0 30.0 .0

20 30.0 45.0 25.0
51 21.658.8 19.6

3 (a) (a) (a)
17 23.5 17.658. 8

669 68.3 28.4 3.3

5 (a) (a) (a)
456 32.0 50.0 18.0

198 74.7 22.2, 3.0
444 67.6 28.8 3.6
225 69.8 27.6 2.7

126 46.0 43.7 10. 3
327 34.6 48. 0 17. 4
129 25.6 55.0, 19. 4

70 55.7 38.6 5.7 199 68.823.6 7.5

63 54.0 36.5 9.5 125 42. 4 39. 2 18.4 31 77.4 16. 1 6.5 15 46.753. 3 .0

157 27.4 33. 1 39.5 1,282 50.4 36.7 12.9

26 42.3 11.546. 2 127 29.9 31.5 38.6 30 16.7 40.0 43.3

350 62.0 29. 1 8.9 898.50.2 36. 213. 6 384 50.8 37.811.5

TOTAL.

Native-born of native fa-
ther, White..
Native-born of foreign fa-
ther, by country of
birth of father:
Canada..
Ireland..
Foreign-born, by race:
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other..
Hebrew, Russian..
Italian, South...

Grand total..

Total native-born of foreign father..

Total native-born.

Total foerign-born...

574 55. 141.8 3.1

656 21.3.67.7 11.0

369 11.4 68.8 19.8 1,599 31. 158. 7 10.2

127 58.3 40. 9 .8
195 79.0 19.5 1.5

83 18. 173.5 8.4
216 41.751.9 6.5

17 29.4 64.7 5.9
58,19.063.8 17. 2

100 64.0 34.0 2.0
93 62.4 33. 3 4.3
178 59.0 39.9 1.1
103 63. 135.9 1.0

103 21.4 68.9 9.7
120 18.3 70.8 10.8
50 10.0 90.0 .0
86 16.3 79. 1 4.7

1.789 63. 234.9 2.0 1.691 24.0 67.5 8.5

427 69.8 28.6 1.6 1,008 61.3 36.2 2.5 781 65.3 33.3 1.4

374 33.7 58.3 8.0
1,032 25.8 64. 2 10. 0′
659 21. 1 72.7 6.2

48 2.133.8 4.2
52 11.5 61.5 26.9
5 (a) (a) (a)
26 .0.96.2 3.8

227 41. 454.6 4.0
469 54.4 39.9 5.8

251 34. 7 59.8 5.6 265 32.5 55.8 11.7 233 47.251.9 .9 215 36. 760.5 2.8

702 11.5 71.1 17.4 4, 182 38. 654.2 7.2

109 20.2 62.4 17.4
480 13.5 67.3 19.2
222 7.2 79.3 13.5

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

910 49.0 44.8 6.2 2.520 37.7 53.6 8.7 1,662 40.0.55.1 4.9

Information concerning the conjugal condition of 2,900 males is contained in the above table. Of that number 61.9 per cent are married, less than 5 per cent are widowed, and 33.4 per cent are single. The proportion of married males is greater among those who are 45 years of age or over than in any other age group. The smallest proportion of married persons is among those who are from 20 to 29 years of age. In each specified age group the proportion of married persons is greater among the foreign-born than it is among the nativeborn of foreign father. Of those who are from 20 to 29 years of age the native whites, born of native father, show the largest proportion

48296°-VOL 12-11-28

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