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apartment. English, French Canadian, and Armenian households show 5.59, 5.10, and 5.03 rooms per apartment, respectively, while households the heads of which are of other specified races show between 4.04 and 4.77 rooms per apartment. Of the total number of households studied, 2.8 per cent occupy apartments of 2 rooms, 11.2 per cent apartments of 3 rooms, 27.6 per cent apartments of 4 rooms, 24.2 per cent apartments of 5 rooms, 21.8 per cent apartments of 6 rooms, and 12.3 per cent apartments of 7 or more rooms. Households whose heads are foreign-born show a higher percentage occupying apartments of 2, 3, and 4 rooms, than households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father and also a higher percentage occupying apartments of 3 and 4 rooms than households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father. The latter, however, show a considerably higher percentage than the former occupying apartments of 2 rooms. Households whose heads are native whites born of native father show a higher percentage occupying apartments of 5, 6, or 7 or more rooms than do households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father or households the heads of which are foreign-born. Households whose heads are Greek show the highest percentage occupying apartments of 2 and 3 rooms, as contrasted with no households the heads of which are Armenians, Hebrews, Irish, and Lithuanians occupying apartments of 2 rooms, and no households the heads of which are Irish occupying apartments of 3 rooms. Households the heads of which

are Lithuanians show 50 per cent occupying apartments of 4 rooms, as contrasted with only 13.8 per cent of households the heads of which are English in apartments with this number of rooms. Households the heads of which are French Canadians show the highest percentage occupying apartments of 5 rooms and South Italians the highest percentage occupying apartments of 6 rooms. Households the heads of which are Greeks show the smallest proportion occupying apartments of 5 rooms, and households whose heads are Lithuanians the lowest percentage in apartments of 6 rooms. Households whose heads are Irish exhibit 53.6 per cent in apartments of 7 or more rooms, as contrasted with no households the heads of which are Hebrews, South Italians, Lithuanians, and Poles in apartments of this size.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The range in the size of households is indicated by the table next presented, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households of each specified number of persons.

TABLE 159.-Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

Total

races.]

Per cent of households of each specified number of persons.

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Average number of persons house- per households.

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The preceding table shows the average number of persons per household to be 5.05. Of the total number of households studied 10.6 per cent are composed of 2 persons, 19 per cent of 3 persons, 14.3 per cent of 4 persons, 17.5 per cent of 5 persons, 14.5 per cent of 6 persons, 10.2 per cent of 7 persons, 6.9 per cent of 8 persons, 4.3 per cent of 9 persons, and 2.8 per cent of 10 or more persons. The households whose heads are native whites born of native father show the highest percentage composed of 2, 3, and 4 persons, households whose heads are native-born of foreign father show the next highest percentage composed of 2 and 4 persons, while households whose heads are foreign-born show the smallest percentage of households composed of 2 and 4 persons. Next to households whose heads are native whites born of native father, households the heads of which are foreign-born show the highest percentage of households composed of 3 persons, the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father following in somewhat smaller proportion. Households whose heads are native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage composed of 5, 6, and 9 persons. The households whose heads are foreign-born and the households whose heads are native whites born of native father follow in the order mentioned, the last named showing no households composed of 9 persons. Households whose heads are foreign-born report the highest per cent of households composed of 7, 8, or 10 or more persons, households whose heads are native-born of foreign father, and households whose heads are native whites born of native father showing considerably smaller proportions, none of the latter group showing any households composed of 7 or 10 or more persons, and none of the households of native-born of foreign father any households composed of 10 or more persons. The households, whose heads are English show the highest percentage of households

composed of 2 persons, and households whose heads are Hebrews, Lithuanians, or Poles show no households of this size. The households the heads of which are Greeks show the highest percentage composed of 3 and 4 persons, and the households whose heads are Hebrews the highest percentage composed of 5 persons. The households the heads of which are Lithuanians or Armenians show the highest percentage composed of 10 or more persons, while households whose heads are English report no households of over 7 persons, and households whose heads are Poles none of over 8 persons.

CONGESTION.

The extent to which crowding prevails in the households of the employees of the shoe-manufacturing industry has been indicated in the preceding tables. In the following series of tables the degree of congestion and its effects upon living conditions are more directly set forth. The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room:

TABLE 160.—Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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3.62

0.69

1.61

9

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37

4.81

89

1.84

35

5.34

1.06

1.91

48

5.48

.93

2. 12

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the 463 households studied, the preceding table shows the average number of persons per apartment to be 5.05, the average number per room 1.02, and the average number per sleeping room is 2. Households whose heads are foreign-born show a considerably higher average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room than the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father or native-born of native father, in the order named. Among households whose heads are foreign-born the Lithuanians and Poles show 7.28 and 6.34 persons per apartment, respectively. Households the heads of which are Hebrews, French Canadians, Armenians, Irish, or South Italians, in the order named, show

between 5.17 and 5.58 persons per apartment. Households the heads of which are Greek and Syrians show between 4 and 5 persons per apartment, while English households show an average of 3.55 persons per apartment. Households the heads of which are Lithuanians, Poles, Hebrews, South Italians, Greeks, and Armenians show an average of between 1 and 2 persons per room. Households of other specified races average less than 1 person per room. Households whose heads are Lithuanians show an average of 2.43 persons per sleeping room, households the heads of which are Hebrews, Poles, South Italians, Greeks, and French Canadians all showing an average of over 2 persons per sleeping room. Households the heads of which are Armenians, English, Syrians, and Irish show an average of less than 2 persons per sleeping room, households the heads of which are Irish exhibiting an average of 1.53 persons per sleeping room.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the range in the number of persons per room: TABLE 161.-Persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The average number of persons per room for the 463 households studied in the above table is 1.02. The households whose heads are foreign-born show an average of 1.10 persons per room, households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show an average of 0.94, those whose heads are native whites born of native father an average of 0.69 person per room, and those whose heads are Lithuanians show an average of 1.74 persons per room, as contrasted with the English, who show an average of only 0.64 person per room. Households the heads of which are foreign-born show a higher percentage having 1 or more or 2 or more persons per room than either the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign or

native-born of native father, which follow in the order named. The households the heads of which are Lithuanians show 100 per cent and the households the heads of which are Poles and Hebrews 96.6 per cent and 86.5 per cent, respectively, having 1 or more persons per room, as contrasted with only 20.7 per cent of households the heads of which are English having 1 or more persons per room. The households whose heads are Lithuanians show over 30 per cent and no households the heads of which are Irish or English show 2 or more persons per room. No households of any race have as many as 3 persons per room.

The range in the number of persons per sleeping room is shown, according to general nativity and race of head of household, in the following table:

TABLE 162.-Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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aNot computed, owing to small number involved.

The preceding table shows that in 463 households studied the average number of persons per sleeping room is 2. The households whose heads are foreign-born show an average of 2.10 persons per sleeping room, the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father show 1.88, and households the heads of which are native whites born of native father show an average of 1.61 persons per sleeping room. Households the heads of which are Lithuanians show 2.43 persons per sleeping room, which is the highest average shown for any race, while those whose heads are Irish show the lowest average number of persons per sleeping room, or 1.53. The households whose heads are foreign-born show the highest percentage having 2 or more and 3 or more persons per sleeping room, the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father and the households the heads of

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