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CHAPTER IX.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment—The immigrant and organized labor—[Text Tables 149 to

151 and General Table 91).

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The regularity of work offered, as well as the relative industriousness of the operatives of the several races, is set forth in the two tables next presented. The first table which follows shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by males, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home.

TABLE 149.— Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races..

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Of the 716 males included in the above table 98.7 per cent have worked three months or over; 91.5 per cent six months or over; 67.6 per cent nine months or over, and 30.4 per cent twelve months during the past year. The native-born of native father shows a larger proportion than the native-born of foreign father, which in turn shows a larger proportion than the foreign-born, having worked each specified number of months. Of the foreign-born races the French Canadians, Greeks, South Italians, and Lithuanians are the only ones showing a proportion working less than three months. All of the Syrians worked six months or over, as compared with 69.8 per cent of the Greeks. Over 50 per cent of each race, except the Armenians, Greeks, and South Italians, worked nine months or over, and the proportion having worked the entire year ranges from 88.5 per cent of the Syrians to 10.8 per cent of the South Italians.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by females, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home:

TABLE 150.- Months worked during the past year by females 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by generul nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 183 females included in the preceding table, 99.5 per cent have worked three months or over, 92.9 per cent six months or over, 69.4 per cent nine months or over, and 34.4 per cent 12 months during the past year. All persons native-born of native father and nativeborn of foreign father have worked three months or over, as compared with 98.7 per cent of the foreign-born. All persons native-born of

native father and 95.1 per cent of the native-born of foreign father have worked six months or over, as compared with 87.3 per cent of the foreign-born. The native-born of native father shows the largest and the foreign-born the smallest proportion having worked nine months or over and twelve months.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which the operatives are members of labor organizations is indicated by the table next submitted, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males, in the households studied.

TABLE 151.- Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over working for

wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of the 641 males studied in the preceding table 41.7 per cent are affiliated with trade unions. There is only a small difference between the proportion of the foreign-born and the native-born of foreign father, while the proportion of the native-born of native father white is somewhat lower than either. Among the foreign-born races the English shows the largest proportion, or 73.5 per cent, while the Polish shows the smallest, or 13.2 per cent who are affiliated with trade unions.

CHAPTER X.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupied—Size of households studied-Congestion—[Text Tables 152 to 163 and General Tables 92 to 103).

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING. The monthly rent payments of households the heads of which were employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry are significant in their bearing upon the standard of living of the employees because of the practice of crowding persons in the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent outlay. This condition is disclosed by the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average rent per month, per apartment, per room, and per person: Table 152.- Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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From 385 households paying rent and reporting the amount it is found that the average rent per apartment is $14:70, the average rent per room is $2.97, and the average rent per person per month is $2.89. Households the heads of which are native whites born of native father show the highest average rent per month per apartment, households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father follow with somewhat smaller averages, while households the heads of which are

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