Lapas attēli
PDF
ePub

average of $961 for the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father. None of the families the heads of which are Irish, as compared with 28 per cent of the families the heads of which are Greek, have a total income under $300.

WIVES AT WORK.

The extent to which the wives of the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home is shown in the following table according to general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 143.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

[blocks in formation]

A

Of the 430 wives in the above table 9.8 per cent are at work. larger proportion of the wives of the families the heads of which are native-born of native father than of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, and a larger proportion of the wives of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father than of the families the heads of which are foreign-born, are at work. Of the wives at work, it is seen that the proportion of those of the English families is largest and those of the Irish families the smallest.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

Although a considerable proportion of the wives in the families, the heads of which were connected with the shoe industry, as well as other female members of the families, seek regular employment outside the home as a means of contributing to the family support, a much larger proportion of the wives add to the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers in the home. The extent to which the wives in the families find it necessary to supplement, in this way, the earnings of their husbands is set forth in the tables next presented.

TABLE 144.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small]

a For selection of families, see p. 525. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

This column includes 16 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none.” e This column includes 5 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."

TABLE 145.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

races.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all For selection of families, see p. 525. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.]

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

8

Total native-born of foreign father..

Total native-born...

33.3

34.6

34.9

27.6

28.1

28.9

Total foreign-born...

43.7

48.6

41.9

44.2

aThis column includes 2 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

A larger proportion of the wives in the foreign-born families than of the wives in the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father have employment or keep boarders or lodgers regardless of earnings of husband, the native whites born of native father showing a smaller proportion in each instance than the native-born of foreign father. A larger proportion of the wives in the families the heads of which are Lithuanians than any other given race have employment or keep boarders or lodgers, the Armenians showing the smallest proportion.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The two tables next presented exhibit the sources of family income in detail. The first of these submitted shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families who had an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources. The year referred to in the table means the twelve months immediately preceding the collection of the data.

TABLE 146.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

[blocks in formation]

Total foreign-born..

107

323

[ocr errors]

90.0

11.7

31.7

15.0

18.3

84.4

3.1

28.1

25.0

18.8

100.0

3.7

25.9

14.8

14.8

93.9

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

21.7

37.2

15.5

a For selection of families, see p. 525.

Of the 430 families selected for study in the preceding table, 91.4 per cent have an income from earnings of husband, 9.8 per cent from earnings of wife, 23 per cent from contributions of children, 33.3 per cent from payments of boarders or lodgers, and 15.8 per cent from other sources. Of the foreign-born families, 92 per cent have an income from earnings of husband, as compared with 90 per cent of the families the heads of which are native-born of native father, and 89.4 per cent of the families native-born of foreign father. A larger proportion of

48296°-VOL 12-11-26

the families the heads of which are native-born of native father, than of either the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father or the families the heads of which are foreign-born, have an income from earnings of wife, contributions of children, and from sources not specified, while a larger proportion of the foreign-born families, than of those the heads of which are native-born of either native or foreign father have an income from payments of boarders or lodgers.

All of the families the heads of which are Armenians, Lithuanians, or Poles, as compared with 47.6 per cent of the Irish families, have an income from earnings of husband, while none of the Irish families and 34.8 per cent of the families the heads of which are English have an income from earnings of wife. Of the families of each race, having an income from contributions of children, the proportion ranges from 76.2 per cent of the Irish to none of the Lithuanian. Of the Lithuanian families 75 per cent have an income from payments of boarders or lodgers, as compared with 8.7 per cent of those the heads of which are English. Of the families having an income from sources other than specified, the proportion ranges from 38.1 per cent of the Irish to 6.1 per cent of the Poles.

The following table also shows the source of family income, according to general nativity and race of head of family, but differs from the preceding table in that each specified source is exclusive of all other sources:

TABLE 147.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

[blocks in formation]

a For selection of families, see p. 525.

600

19. 1 .0 .0
10.3' .9 .0
25.4. .3 .0

.0 4.3 .0 3.7 .0 2.2

4.3 .0

19.1

1.9 .0

22.4

2.5

.0

19.2

Less than 1 per cent of the 430 families selected for study in the foregoing table have their entire income from husband, wife and children, or wife; less than 3 per cent have their entire income from children, or children and boarders or lodgers; and none have their entire income from wife and children, wife and boarders or lodgers, or boarders or lodgers. Of the remainder 36.3 per cent have entire income from husband, 5.8 per cent from husband and wife, 10.2 per cent from husband and children, 21.6 per cent from husband and boarders or lodgers, and 20 per cent from sources or combinations of sources not specified. Comparing the households the heads of which are of each nativity group, it is seen that a larger proportion of those native-born of native father, than of those either native-born of foreign father or foreign-born, have entire income from husband, the foreign-born showing the smallest proportion. Those the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show the smallest proportion having entire income from husband and children. Little difference is shown between the proportions having entire income from husband and wife, families the heads of which are native-born of native father showing 6.7 per cent and the foreign-born 5.6 per cent. Of the foreignborn families, 25.4 per cent have their entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers, as compared with 19.1 per cent of those the heads of which are native-born of foreign father and only 3.3 per cent of those the heads of which are native-born of native father.

The families native-born of foreign father show the largest and the foreign-born show the smallest proportion having entire income from children. None of the families the heads of which are native-born of native father, as compared with 4.3 per cent of those the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, and 2.5 per cent of those the heads of which are foreign-born, have entire income from children and boarders or lodgers. Practically the same proportions of the households native-born of foreign father, as of the foreign-born, and a larger proportion of the native-born of native father, have entire income from sources or combination of sources not specified. Among the households of the different races studied the proportion having entire income from husband ranges from 55.6 per cent of the Armenians to 11.1 per cent of the Lithuanians. Over 50 per cent of the families the heads of which are Lithuanian or Polish, over 20 per cent of the Greek, Hebrew, and South Italian, 18.4 per cent of the French Canadian, 7.4 per cent of those the heads of which are Armenian, and none of those the heads of which are English or Irish have entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers. Only the French Canadian families show a proportion who are entirely dependent on the income from wife. The children of 19 per cent of the families the heads of which are Irish contribute the entire family income, less than 5 per cent of the families the heads of which are Hebrew or South Italian, and none of the families of any of the other specified races having entire income from this source. Less than 10 per cent of the families of any given race have entire income from children and boarders or lodgers, while the proportion having entire income from sources or combinations of sources not specified ranges from 38.1 per cent of the Irish to 11.4 per cent of the South Italians.

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »