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Of the individuals in this locality for whom information was secured 43.3 per cent of the males and 30 per cent of the females are foreignborn, 21 per cent of the males and 29 per cent of the females are native-born of foreign father, 35.5 per cent of the males and 40.8 per cent of the females are native white, born of native father, and only 0.2 per cent of the males and 0.3 per cent of the females are native negro, born of native-father. Both males and females, whose fathers were born in Ireland or in Canada, have by far the largest representation among the native-born of foreign father. In the case of the males, the principal races are the Russian Hebrews, South Italians, French Canadians, and Canadians other than French, in the order mentioned, and in the case of the females, the Canadians other than French, Russian Hebrews, French Canadians, and Irish.

CHAPTER VIII.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States—General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied-Comparison of occupations of the first and second generations-Occupations entered in the boot and shoe industry-Weekly earnings-Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income Relative importance of different sources of family income—[Text Tables 123 to 148 and General Tables 75 to 90).

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

In order that a comparison may be made of the condition of the immigrants connected with the shoe industry in this country with their condition while abroad, it is necessary to point out their general industrial status and the principal occupations followed by them before emigrating from their native countries. This is done in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

Table 123.- Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the 471 males included in the preceding table, 38.2 per cent were working for wages, 29.5 per cent were working without wages, 25.3 per cent were working for profit, and 7 per cent were without occupation before coming to the United States. The English and Lithuanian are the only races not showing a proportion who were without occupation. Among those who were working for wages the English shows the largest and the Lithuanian the smallest proportion, while among those who were working without wages the Lithuanian shows the largest and the English the smallest proportion. Of those of each race who were working for profit the proportion ranges from 39.6 per cent of the Armenian to 4.2 per cent of the English.

The following table shows the principal occupations before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, and is presented, according to race of individual:

Table 124.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the 471 males included in the preceding table, 7 per cent were without occupation, 38.2 per cent were working for wages, 29.5 per cent were working without wages, and 25.3 per cent were working for profit before coming to the United States. The 38.2 per cent who were working for wages comprises the following-11.3 per cent engaged in the shoe manufacturing industry, 8.1 per cent as farm laborers, 3.6 per cent in hand trades, less than 1 per cent as general laborers and 14.6 per cent engaged in occupations other than those specified in this table. The 29.5 per cent working without wages, comprises 25.9 per cent engaged as farm laborers and 3.6 per cent otherwise employed. Of the 25.3 per cent working for profit, 9.3 per cent were farmers and 15.9 per cent were engaged in occupations other than farming. Among those of each race who were working for wages the proportion who were farm laborers ranges from 20.3 per cent of the Polish to none of the Hebrews. The proportion who were employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry ranges from

66.7 per cent of the English to 1.4 per cent of the Polish, the Armenian, Greek, Lithuanian, and Syrian showing none, however. The proportions for those who were working for wages in occupations other than those specified, ranges from 31.9 per cent of the Hebrew to 2.7 per cent of the Polish. Each race, except the Armenian, English, Hebrew, and South Italian, shows that of those who were working without wages a larger proportion were farm laborers than were otherwise employed. With the exception of the French Canadian, Lithuanian, and Polish groups, each race shows that a larger proportion of their number who were working for profit were engaged in occupations other than farming.

The table next submitted shows, by race of individual, the industrial conditions before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. Table 125.- Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born

females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Of the 344 females included in the preceding table, 73 per cent were without occupation, 15.4 per cent were working for wages, 10.8 per cent were working without wages, and less than 1 per cent were working for profit before coming to the United States. Of those of each race who were without occupation the proportion ranges from 97.2 per cent of the Armenians to 32.5 per cent of the Lithuanians. The French Canadian shows the largest and, with the exception of the Greek which shows none, the Armenian shows the smallest proportion who were working for wages; while the Lithuanian shows the largest and, with the exception of the Armenian which shows none, the Hebrew the smallest proportion working without wages. The Hebrew and South Italian show 1.5 per cent and 2.1 per cent, respectively, who were working for profit, other races showing none.

The table next presented analyzes the preceding table into the principal occupations followed by foreign-born females in the households studied, before coming to the United States, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. The presentation is by race of individual.

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Table 126.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who

were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the 344 females reporting complete data in the above table, 73 per cent were without occupation, 15.4 per cent were working for wages, 10.8 per cent were working without wages, and 0.9 per cent were working for profit before coming to the l'nited States. ‘Among those who were working for wages the largest proportion were in domestic service, the next largest proportion having been engaged in sewing, embroidering, etc., and only 1.2 per cent of the total number reporting were engaged in the shoe-manufacturing industry. Among those who were working without wages less than 1 per cent were employed other than as farm laborers, and among those working for profit the entire proportion were engaged in occupations other than farming. Only two races, the French Canadian and Lithuanian, show a proportion who have been employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry. The entire proportion of Poles who were working for wages were in domestic service and the entire proportion of Armenians were in occupations other than those specified. Among those who were working without wages only one race, the South Italian, shows a proportion who were employed as other than farm laborers.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

The table next presented shows, by race, the percentage of foreignborn male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States.

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