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mitted shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 120.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Italian, South.

252

31.7

17.5

7.9

5.6

37.3

Total..

1,866

30.2

18.7

11.6

13.6

25.9

From the data presented in the preceding table it appears that of the males for whom information was secured, 30.2 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 19.6 per cent have been here from five to nine years, 11.5 per cent have been here from ten to fourteen years, 13.5 per cent have been here from fifteen to nineteen years, and 25.2 per cent have been here twenty years or over. The proportion for male employees who have been in the United States under five years is largest for the Greeks and Russian Hebrews, and the proportion who have been here from five to nine years and from ten to fourteen years is largest for the North and South Italians. The French Canadians, English, and Canadians other than French, in the

order mentioned, have the largest proportions for individuals who have been in this country from fifteen to nineteen years and the Irish, Canadians other than French, and French Canadians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportions for individuals who have been here twenty years or over. Of the females, 30.2 per cent have been here under five years, 16.1 per cent from five to nine years, 12 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 13.7 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 28.1 per cent twenty years or over. The proportion for females who have been in the United States under five years is largest for the Russian Hebrews, Greeks, and South Italians, in the order mentioned, and the proportion for individuals who have been here from five to nine years is largest for the North Italians and Greeks, in the order mentioned, while the English, French Canadians, Irish, and Canadians other than French have the largest proportion of individuals who have been in the United States twenty years or

over.

The following table sets forth, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied, who had been in the United States each specified number of years:

TABLE 121.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Total..

1,225

43.8

68.7

85.9

Of 1,225 persons employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in this locality, 43.8 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 68.7 per cent under ten years, and 85.9 per cent under 20 years. The Irish group shows the largest and the Greek and Syrian the smallest proportion having been in the United States twenty years or more, while of those of each other race having been in the United States under ten years the Greek shows the largest proportion and the Irish none. Over 50 per cent of the Armenians, Greeks, Hebrews, and Poles have been in the United States under five years.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial classification of the operating forces of the boot and shoe factories in Community A may be seen in the following table which shows by sex the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured.

Table 122.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race.

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Total native-born....

1.877

1, 155

3,032

56.7

70.0

61.1

1,433

494

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Total foreign-born....

1,927

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

Of the individuals in this locality for whom information was secured 43.3 per cent of the males and 30 per cent of the females are foreignborn, 21 per cent of the males and 29 per cent of the females are native-born of foreign father, 35.5 per cent of the males and 40.8 per cent of the females are native white, born of native father, and only 0.2 per cent of the males and 0.3 per cent of the females are native negro, born of native-father. Both males and females, whose fathers were born in Ireland or in Canada, have by far the largest representation among the native-born of foreign father. In the case of the males, the principal races are the Russian Hebrews, South Italians, French Canadians, and Canadians other than French, in the order mentioned, and in the case of the females, the Canadians other than French, Russian Hebrews, French Canadians, and Irish.

CHAPTER VIII.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States-General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied-Comparison of occupations of the first and second generations Occupations entered in the boot and shoe industry-Weekly earnings-Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family incomeWives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income-[Text Tables 123 to 148 and General Tables 75 to 90].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In order that a comparison may be made of the condition of the immigrants connected with the shoe industry in this country with their condition while abroad, it is necessary to point out their eral industrial status and the principal occupations followed by them before emigrating from their native countries. This is done in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 123.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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