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CHAPTER VII.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born

employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time[Text Tables 119 to 122 and General Tables 73 and 74).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

Data showing in detail the history of the movement of immigrant races to Community A are, unfortunately, unavailable. The Massachusetts State census, however, classifies the population of the city, by country of birth, in the census years 1855, 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, and 1905. From these figures it is possible to determine in a general way the history of immigration to the community. The data are presented in the following table: TABLE 119.-Population of Community A, by country of birth, in years in which a State

census was taken.a

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17,751

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b 263

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Native-born..

13,332 Foreign-born, by country of birth:

Africa..
American citizens (born at sea)
Armenia
Australia.
Austria.
Asia, not specified.
At sea.
Belgium..
British Possessions, not specified.
Bulgaria...
Canada (English).
Canada (French).
China..
Cuba....
Denmark

2

4 England

160

196 Finland, France.

5

4 Germany.

d11

14
Greece.
Hawaii
Holland..
Hungary
Ireland

1,857

2, 307 Italy.

2

1
Japan.
Mexico.
New Brunswick.
Newfoundland.
Norway..

€9

e9
Nova Scotia.
Poland.
Portugal.

2

3 Portuguese Possessions...

a The nativities specified differ from census to census.
0 Includes all of British America.
c Includes West Indies.

15 32

32 138

64 260

328 409

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Table 119.- Population of Community A, by country of birth, in years in which a State

census was takenContinued.

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It appears from the above table that the population of Community A increased from 15,713 in 1855 to 77,042 in 1905. During the fifty-year period the increase was quite regular. Since 1875 there has been a marked increase in the proportion of foreign-born inhabitants. The first immigrants to come to the city in any number appear to have been the Irish. There were 1,857 of these people in the community in 1855, and 2,307 in 1865. From 1865 to 1895 the Irish population increased rapidly, but the figures for 1905 show a slight decrease. Even in 1905, however, the Irish are present in larger numbers than persons of any other European race. Canadian immigration to Community A has been heavy since 1875. Many of the persons of Canadian nativity are from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island and many others are of French descent. English and Scotch immigration, while not so heavy as the Irish and Canadian immigration, has been regular since before 1855. Since 1885 there has been a limited Scandinavian immigration. The immigration of persons of southern or eastern European nativity was very light until after 1895. By 1905, however, persons of Polish, Russian, Italian, and Austrian birth had come to the community in considerable numbers.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

The racial movements to the industry in the community are also indicated by the following series of tables, which set forth the length of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households. Period of residence in this country and in Community A are not necessarily identical, but they closely approximate each other and the tabulations afford an insight into the character of recent and past immigration. The first table submitted shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who had been in the United States each specified number

of years.

Table 120.—Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified num

ber of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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From the data presented in the preceding table it appears that of the males for whom information was secured, 30.2 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 19.6 per cent have been here from five to nine years, 11.5 per cent have been here from ten to fourteen years, 13.5 per cent have been here from fifteen to nineteen years, and 25.2 per cent have been here twenty years or over.

The proportion for male employees who have been in the United States under five years is largest for the Greeks and Russian Hebrews, and the proportion who have been here from five to nine years and from ten to fourteen years is largest for the North and South Italians. The French Canadians, English, and Canadians other than French, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportions for individuals who have been in this country from fifteen to nineteen years and the Irish, Canadians other than French, and French Canadians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportions for individuals who have been here twenty years or over. of the females, 30.2 per cent have been

. Of here under five years, 16.1 per cent from five to nine years, 12 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 13.7 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 28.1 per cent twenty years or over. The proportion for females who have been in the United States under five years is largest for the Russian Hebrews, Greeks, and South Italians, in the order mentioned, and the proportion for individuals who have been here from five to nine years is largest for the North Italians and Greeks, in the order mentioned, while the English, French Canadians, Irish, and Canadians other than French have the largest proportion of individuals who have been in the United States twenty years or

over.

The following table sets forth, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied, who had been in the United States each specified number of years:

Table 121.- Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number

of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of 1,225 persons employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in this locality, 43.8 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 68.7 per cent under ten years, and 85.9 per cent under 20 years. The Irish group shows the largest and the Greek and Syrian the smallest proportion having been in the United States twenty years or more, while of those of each other race having been in the United States under ten years the Greek shows the largest proportion and the Irish none. Over 50 per cent of the Armenians, Greeks, Hebrews, and Poles have been in the United States under

five years.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial classification of the operating forces of the boot and shoe factories in Community A may be seen in the following table which shows by sex the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured.

Table 122.--Employees for whom information was secured, by ser and general nativity

and race.

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Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro.
Native born of foreign father, by country
of birth of father:

Austria-Hungary.
Canada...
Denmark.
England.
France.
Germany
Ireland..
Italy..
Netherlands.
Norway.
Portugal.
Russia.
Scotland.

Sweden.
Foreign-born, by race:

Albanian
Armenian
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Cuban.
Danish.
English.
French.
German..
Greek.
Hebrew Russian.
Hebrew, Other.
Irish
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian..
Magyar...
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian.
Russian..
Scotch.
Slovak
Swedish.
Syrian.
Turkish..
Australian (race not specified).
Austrian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified)..

Grand total....
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

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