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Detailed information was secured for a total of 2,284 persons in this locality. Of this number 52.6 per cent are males and 47.4 per cent are females. The foreign-born shows a larger proportion of males than the native-born of foreign father, which in turn shows a larger proportion than the native-born of native father. The position of the nativity groups is naturally reversed as regards the proportion of females. Considering the foreign-born by race it is seen that the Lithuanians show the largest and the Irish the smallest proportion of males, the same races reversed showing the largest and smallest proportion of females.

The table next presented exhibits, by sex and by general nativity and race of individual, the number and percentage of persons in the households studied for whom detailed information was secured.

TABLE 117.-Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Total foreign-born..

695

539

54.0

1,234

57.8

49.8

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Detailed information was secured for a total of 2,284 persons in this locality. Of this number 1,202 are males and 1,082 females. Of the males, 57.8 per cent are foreign-born; 27.4 per cent nativeborn of foreign father, and 14.8 per cent native-born of native father. Of the females, 49.8 per cent are foreign-born, 31.5 per cent native

born of foreign father, and 18.7 per cent native whites born of native father. Considering the foreign-born by race it is seen that the Hebrew shows the largest proportion of both males and females.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

Detailed information was also received for 4,959 operatives in the community, of whom the number and percentage of each race is shown, by sex, in the table below.

TABLE 118.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race.

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Total foreign-born...

494

43.3

1.433

1,927

30.0

38.9

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

CHAPTER VII.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time [Text Tables 119 to 122 and General Tables 73 and 74].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

Data showing in detail the history of the movement of immigrant races to Community A are, unfortunately, unavailable. The Massachusetts State census, however, classifies the population of the city, by country of birth, in the census years 1855, 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, and 1905. From these figures it is possible to determine in a general way the history of immigration to the community. The data are presented in the following table:

TABLE 119.-Population of Community A, by country of birth, in years in which a State census was taken.a

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a The nativities specified differ from census to census.

Includes all of British America.

• Includes West Indies.

d Includes Holland.

• Includes Sweden.

f Includes colonies.

TABLE 119.-Population of Community A, by country of birth, in years in which a State census was taken-Continued.

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Grand total..................

a Includes Poland and Finland.

b Includes colonies.

c Includes one Servian.

15,713

20,747

32,600

45,867 62,354

77.042

d Includes Central America.
• Details 17 less than total.

It appears from the above table that the population of Community A increased from 15,713 in 1855 to 77,042 in 1905. During the fifty-year period the increase was quite regular. Since 1875 there has been a marked increase in the proportion of foreign-born inhabitants. The first immigrants to come to the city in any number appear to have been the Irish. There were 1,857 of these people in the community in 1855, and 2,307 in 1865. From 1865 to 1895 the Irish population increased rapidly, but the figures for 1905 show a slight decrease. Even in 1905, however, the Irish are present in larger numbers than persons of any other European race. Canadian immigration to Community A has been heavy since 1875. Many of the persons of Canadian nativity are from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island and many others are of French descent. English and Scotch immigration, while not so heavy as the Irish and Canadian immigration, has been regular since before 1855. Since 1885 there has been a limited Scandinavian immigration. The immigration of persons cf southern or eastern European nativity was very light until after 1895. By 1905, however, persons of Polish, Russian, Italian, and Austrian birth had come to the community in considerable numbers.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

The racial movements to the industry in the community are also indicated by the following series of tables, which set forth the length of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households. Period of residence in this country and in Community A are not necessarily identical, but they closely approximate each other and the tabulations afford an insight into the character of recent and past immigration. The first table sub

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