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employees show over 95 per cent and the Russian Hebrews over 90 per cent who can speak English as contrasted with only 50.4 per cent of the Slovaks having this ability. Among the employees who were under 14 years of age and who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States the males show a higher per cent than the females who are able to speak English, while in the totals, irrespective of age at the time of landing, the females show a greater proportion who are able to speak English than the males. In the group showing the employees who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States the South Italian and Slovak females show a higher percentage who are able to speak English than the males of these races. In the group of employees who were 14 years of age or over at the time of landing, the North Italian females show a higher per cent who can speak English than the males of this race, while the Slovak male employees show slightly over 50 per cent as contrasted with only 10.3 per cent of the female employees who can speak English. In the totals the North and South Italian female employees show a higher per cent who can speak English than the male employees of these races.

The advancement manifested by employees of foreign birth and of non-English-speaking races in acquiring an ability to speak English after designated periods of residence is set forth in the following table. It shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English.

TABLE 113.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the
United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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TABLE 113.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the United States, and race-Continued.

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Italian, South.

Slovak...

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375

29.7

65.9

Total..

88.9

50.4

3,555

54.4

82.4

95.5

74.7

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of a total of 3,555 persons included in the preceding table 74.7 per cent speak English. Generally speaking the ability of foreignborn persons to speak English increases proportionately with the length of residence in the United States. The Russian Hebrew is the only race showing its entire number with a given period of residence as having ability to speak English. The Slovaks show the smallest proportion in each division. Little difference is shown between the male and female members of the several races as regards ability to speak English.

REPRESENTATIVE COMMUNITY A.

CHAPTER VI.

INTRODUCTION.

Industrial significance of the community-Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-Employees for whom information was secured-[Text Tables 114 to 118 and General Tables 70 to 72].

INDUSTRIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COMMUNITY.

For many years Community A has been one of the principal boot and shoe manufacturing cities of the United States.

NOTE. In order that a more detailed exhibit may be had of the industrial as well as the general effects of recent immigration upon American life and institutions, two representative boot and shoe manufacturing communities in which immigrants of recent and past years have found extensive employment have been selected for intensive study. These communities, owing to the confidential character of some of the data received, are designated as Communities A and B. A household study furnishes the statistical basis for the study of Community B, and both households and employees for Community A.

Not only is Community A one of the principal boot and shoe manufacturing cities in the United States, but the manufacture of boots and shoes is, by all odds, the most important industry of the city. In 1905 the value of boots and shoes manufactured equaled 47.2 per cent of the total value of all manufactures reported for the city. In 1900 the proportion was 42.8 per cent. These figures supply an indication of the relative importance of the industry.

There were in the city, in 1905, 127 boot and shoe manufacturing establishments, with a total capital of $8,815,739. Of the 11,402 wage-earners employed in these establishments, 6,917 were men 16 years of age or over, 4,412 were women 16 years of age or over, and 73 were children under 16 years of age. The men received during the year $4,476,774, the women $1,741,797, the children $18,650, and all employees combined $6,237,221 in wages. The materials used in the industry cost $14,718,508.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

A total of 463 households in Community A, the heads of which were engaged in the boot and shoe manufacturing industry, were studied in detail. The table next presented shows the households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 114.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The preceding table shows that 74.7 per cent of the heads of the total number of households studied were of foreign birth, 15.3 per cent of the heads were native-born whites of native father, and 9.9 per cent of the heads were native-born of foreign father. Among households the heads of which were native-born of foreign father, those the heads of which are Irish show a higher percentage than households the heads of which are French Canadians. Among households the heads of which are of foreign birth, those whose heads are Hebrews, South Italians, and French Canadians show over 10 per cent, while households the heads of which are Armenians, Lithuanians, Poles, English, Irish, and Greeks show between 5.8 per cent and 7.6 per cent, while households the heads of which are Syrians show only 3.9 per cent of the total number of households studied.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

The table which follows shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, persons in the households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured:

TABLE 115.-Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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TABLE 115.-Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household-Continued.

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Of the 2,337 persons in the 463 households studied, 79.2 per cent are foreign-born, 11 per cent native-born of native father, and 9.8 per cent native-born of foreign father. Of the total number of persons, the largest proportion, or 12.4 per cent, are Hebrews, and the smallest proportion, or 2.2 per cent, are the native-born of French Canadian father. Detailed information was secured for 2,284 of the 2,337 persons. Of those for whom detailed information was secured, 78.9 per cent are foreign-born, 11.1 per cent native-born of native father, white, and 10 per cent native-born of foreign father. The Hebrews constitute the largest and the second generation of French Canadians the smallest proportion of the total number of persons

for whom information was secured.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured:

TABLE 116.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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