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CHAPTER V.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Citizenship-Ability to speak English-[Text Tables 109 to 113 and General Tables 67 to 69].

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which foreign-born employees have acquired or manifested an interest in attaining citizenship is set forth in the following table which shows, by race, the present political condition of the foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country:

TABLE 109.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the 731 males included in the foregoing table 31.3 per cent are fully naturalized and 20.1 per cent have signified their intentions of becoming citizens. Of the races for which computations are made, the German shows the largest and the Slovaks the smallest proportion who are fully naturalized, while the proportion who have taken out first papers only ranges from 33.9 per cent of the Russian Hebrews to 8.7 per cent of the Germans.

The interest exhibited by foreign-born shoe-manufacturing employees in the East in acquiring citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country is indicated in the following table which shows, by years in the United States and race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States:

TABLE 110.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in United States and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Total.

74

5.4

16.2

359

6.1

25.6

51 372

25.5

19.6

125

13.6

17.6

55.6

731 31.3

20.1

14.8

Of 731 foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, 31.3 per cent are fully naturalized and 20.1 per cent have first papers only. Of employees who have been in the United States from five to nine years only 6.1 per cent are fully naturalized and 25.6 per cent have first papers. Of those with a residence of ten years or over, 55.6 per cent are citizens and 14.8 per cent have first papers.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The following table shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreignborn employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English:

TABLE 111.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Total..

341

34

375

53.1

23.5

50.4

75

14

89

96.0

100.0

96.6

3,069

486

3,555

74.4

74.7

76.7

Of 3,555 persons reporting in this industry 3,069 are males and 486 are females. Of this number 74.4 per cent of the males, 76.7 per cent of the females, and 74.7 per cent of the total number of males and females can speak English. The German, French Canadian, Swedish, and Russian Hebrew employees show over 90 per cent who are able to speak English. The North Italian, Armenian, Greek, South Italian, Russian, and Lithuanian employees, in the order mentioned, show between 60 and 77 per cent who can speak English, and Polish and Slovak employees only slightly over 50 per cent who have this ability. The German, South Italian, and Swedish employees who are females show slightly larger proportions who are able to speak English than the males of these races, while Russian and North Italian female employees show a very much higher percentage who can speak English than the male employees of these races. Male employees of other races not specified above show a higher percentage who can speak English than females, the Lithuanian, Polish, and Slovak male employees showing a very much higher percentage who can speak English than the female employees of these races.

The tabulation next submitted makes possible a comparison of the relative proportion of the younger and older immigrants able to speak English. It shows, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English.

TABLE 112.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Italian, South..
Slovak.

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375

46.8

Total..

96.3

50.4

3,555

98.8

69.1

74.7

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of 3,555 foreign-born employees shown in the above table, 98.8 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age and 69.1 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States can speak English, and 74.7 per cent of all foreignborn employees reporting irrespective of age at the time of coming to this country can speak English. Of the foreign-born employees who were under 14 at the time of landing the French Canadian, South Italian, Russian Hebrew, and Slovak employees, in the order named, show over 95 per cent who can speak English as contrasted with only 83.3 per cent of the Greek employees in this group having this ability. Among employees who were 14 years of age or over at the time of landing the French Canadian employees exhibit over 95 per cent who can speak English. The Russian Hebrews show slightly less than 90 per cent and the employees of other races exhibit considerably smaller proportions, the Slovaks showing only 46.8 per cent who can speak English. In the total the French Canadian

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