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Table 108.- Per cent of employees within each age group, by sex and general nativity

and race

-Continued.

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Of a total of 12,392 persons employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in this locality, none are under 14 years of age, and the largest proportion for any specified age group, or 22.6 per cent, are from 20 to 24 years of age. Not a great difference is shown between the proportions who are each specified age from 24 to 44 years, and comparatively small proportions are from 45 to 54 years of age or 55 years of age or over. The native-born of foreign father show a larger proportion than the native-born of native father, which in turn show a larger proportion than the foreign-born, who are from 14 to 19 years of age. Only a small difference between the proportions of the different nativity groups is shown as regards those within each specified age group from 20 to 44 years, while the native-born of native father show the largest and the native-born of foreign father the smallest proportion who are from 45 to 54 years of age or 55 years of age or over.

Over 50 per cent of each race of more recent immigration employed in this industry are less than 30 years of age, as compared with over 50 per cent of each race of older immigration who are 30 years of age or over.

A comparison between the total number of male and female employees shows that while a larger proportion of the females than of the males are from 14 to 19 or from 20 to 24 years of age the reverse is true as regards each other specified age.

A larger proportion of the females than of the males of each race except the Greek and Swedish are less than 20 years of age. The Armenian, Russian Hebrew, North Italian, South Italian, and Polish races each show a larger proportion of males than females who are from 20 to 24 years of age. The Slovak is the only race showing a larger proportion of females than males who are from 35 to 44 years of age. Each race shows a larger proportion of males than females in each specified age group above 44 years, excepting the Scotch in the 45 to 54 and the North Italians 55 years of age or over.

CHAPTER V.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Citizenship—Ability to speak English—[Text Tables 109 to 113 and General Tables

67 to 69].

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which foreign-born employees have acquired or manifested an interest in attaining citizenship is set forth in the following table which shows, by race, the present political condition of the foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country:

TABLE 109.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been

in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the 731 males included in the foregoing table 31.3 per cent are fully naturalized and 20.1 per cent have signified their intentions of becoming citizens. Of the races for which computations are made, the German shows the largest and the Slovaks the smallest proportion who are fully naturalized, while the proportion who have taken out first papers only ranges from 33.9 per cent of the Russian Hebrews to 8.7 per cent of the Germans.

The interest exhibited by foreign-born shoe-manufacturing employees in the East in acquiring citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country is indicated in the following table which shows, by years in the United States and race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States:

Table 110.Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21

years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in United States and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is fər ail foreign-born.)

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Of 731 foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, 31.3 per cent are fully naturalized and 20.1 per cent have first papers only. Of employees who have been in the United States from five to nine years only 6.1 per cent are fully naturalized and 25.6 per cent have first papers. Of those with a residence of ten years or over, 55.6 per cent are citizens and 14.8 per cent have first papers.

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