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of other races specified. Russian husbands report over 45 per cent and South Italian husbands over 30 per cent of wives abroad, as contrasted with only 2.7 per cent of Germans, 1.5 per cent of FrenchCanadians, 0.7 per cent of other Canadians, and no Irish husbands who have wives in Europe. It is particularly noticeable that husbands who belong to the older immigrant races show a very much. higher percentage of wives in the United States than do husbands who are from races of southern and eastern Europe which are of more recent immigration.

The extent to which foreign-born employees who came to this country without their wives send for their wives after designated periods of residence is set forth in the table next presented, which shows by race of husband, and by years husband has been in the United States, the percentage of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad.

TABLE 106.—Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more husbands reporting.]

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Among foreign-born husbands who have been in the United States under five years, South Italians show over 60 per cent and Slovak and North Italian husbands over 50 per cent who report wives abroad, as contrasted with only 16.9 per cent of Russian Hebrews whose wives are in Europe. Among husbands who have been in the United States from five to nine years, South Italians continue to show the highest percentage, followed by North Italian, Slovak, and Russian Hebrew husbands in the order mentioned. In the two groups mentioned no French Canadian husbands report wives abroad. Among foreign-born husbands with a residence of ten years or over, South Italians show 12.5 per cent of husbands having wives abroad, as contrasted with no Russian Hebrew and Irish husbands thus reporting. The totals show slightly over 30 per cent of South Italian husbands and slightly less than 30 per cent of Slovak husbands having wives abroad, as compared with less than 1 per cent of Canadian, other than French, and no Irish husbands whose wives are abroad.

VISITS ABROAD.

The tendency manifested by employees of foreign birth to return to their native lands for visits of varying duration after designated periods of residence in this country is considered in the table next submitted. It shows by sex, years in the United States, and race, the visits abroad made by foreign-born employees.

TABLE 107.-Visits abroad made by foreign-born employees, by ser, years in the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Total.

1,258

767

1,481

3,506

7.7

39.4

24.2

21.6

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The preceding table shows that of 3,506 foreign-born employees, 24.2 per cent have made one or more visits abroad. Of those who have been in this country under five years, 7.7 per cent have visited abroad, and of those with a residence of from five to nine years, 21.6 per cent have made one or more visits abroad. Of the employees who have been in the United States ten years or over, 39.4 per cent have made one or more visits abroad. Among the employees who have been in the United States under five years, the French Canadian and Canadian other than French show the greatest tendency to make visits abroad, 63.2 per cent of the former and 57.9 per cent of the latter having visited their native land. The employees of these two races continue to show by far the highest percentage of persons visiting abroad among the employees given in the table in each

residential period. After the two races discussed above, the South Italian employees show the highest percentage in the group who have been in this country under five years and the group with a residence of from five to nine years having made visits abroad. In the first of these groups none of the Irish employees have visited abroad, and in the second group none of the Russian Hebrews have made one or more visits abroad. Among the employees who have been in this country ten years or over the French Canadian and other Canadian employees show the highest percentage, followed by the South Italians and the North Italians; the Russian Hebrews show the lowest percentage of persons who have visited abroad, the same order being followed in the totals for all employees, excepting that the North Italians show a slightly larger proportion than the South Italians. In the group having a residence of under five years, the males show a higher percentage than do the females, who have made one or more visits abroad, while in the following specified periods of residence from five to nine years and ten years or over and also in the totals, the reverse is true, the females showing a much higher percentage who have visited abroad than the males:

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES.

The range in ages of employees is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the percentage of employees in each age group:

TABLE 108.-Per cent of employees within each age group, by sex and general ̧nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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TABLE 108.-Per cent of employees within each age group, by sex and general nativity and race-Continued.

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Total foreign-born..

7,779 20.0
4,613

21.2

15.0

12.3

18. 1

9.3

4.1

15.7

25.0 18.6

7.2

3.1

14.0

16.5

Of a total of 12,392 persons employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in this locality, none are under 14 years of age, and the largest proportion for any specified age group, or 22.6 per cent, are from 20 to 24 years of age. Not a great difference is shown between the propor

tions who are each specified age from 24 to 44 years, and comparatively small proportions are from 45 to 54 years of age or 55 years of age or over. The native-born of foreign father show a larger proportion than the native-born of native father, which in turn show a larger proportion than the foreign-born, who are from 14 to 19 years of age. Only a small difference between the proportions of the different nativity groups is shown as regards those within each specified age group from 20 to 44 years, while the native-born of native father show the largest and the native-born of foreign father the smallest proportion who are from 45 to 54 years of age or 55 years of age or over. Over 50 per cent of each race of more recent immigration employed in this industry are less than 30 years of age, as compared with over 50 per cent of each race of older immigration who are 30 years of age

or over.

A comparison between the total number of male and female employees shows that while a larger proportion of the females than of the males are from 14 to 19 or from 20 to 24 years of age the reverse is true as regards each other specified age.

A larger proportion of the females than of the males of each race except the Greek and Swedish are less than 20 years of age. The Armenian, Russian Hebrew, North Italian, South Italian, and Polish races each show a larger proportion of males than females who are from 20 to 24 years of age. The Slovak is the only race showing a larger proportion of females than males who are from 35 to 44 years of age. Each race shows a larger proportion of males than females in each specified age group above 44 years, excepting the Scotch in the 45 to 54 and the North Italians 55 years of age or over.

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