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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States

Weekly earnings Relation between period of residence and earning ability, [Text Tables 95 to 101 and General Tables 56 to 61).

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

In order that an intelligent conception may be had of the economic status of immigrant employees in the East or North Atlantic States, it is necessary to set forth their industrial condition before emigrating from their native countries. Such an exhibit is also valuable in showing what training and experience foreign-born shoe-manufacturing employees had abroad in the same industry in which they are now employed; consequently, before entering into a discussion of their present economic status, the following table is submitted, which shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States:

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TABLE 95.--Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The preceding table shows that 40.1 per cent of the 2,362 foreignborn male employees who reported were engaged in shoe manufacturing before coming to the United States, 4.8 per cent were employed in other manufacturing, 31.5 per cent were farming or farm laborers, 3 per cent were general laborers, 7.2 per cent were in hand trades, 7.9 per cent were in trade, and 5.5 per cent were engaged in other occupations before coming to the United States. The South Italian employees show the greatest proportion who have had previous experience in shoe manufacturing, 68.7 per cent of those reporting having been thus engaged. The North Italians and English show the next largest proportion, somewhat less than 60 per cent having been employed in this industry abroad. The Russian Hebrew, Armenian, and French Canadian employees also show considerable proportions, while the Canadians other than French, Greek, Polish, Slovak, and Lithuanian employees show comparatively small proportions who have had any previous experience in their present occupation. The English employees show the highest percentage and the South Italians the lowest percentage who were engaged in other manufactures abroad. The Lithuanian, Polish, and Slovak employees show over 70 per cent who were engaged in farming or were farm laborers in Europe, which is far in excess of the proportions of employees of other races who were thus engaged, the English showing only 1.2 per cent in this group. The North Italians report the highest percentage who were general laborers and the Russian Hebrews and Canadians other than French no persons who were thus employed. The Armenians show the highest percentage who were engaged in hand trades and the Poles the lowest. The Greek and Russian Hebrew employees show large proportions who were in trade, and the Poles and Slovaks less than 1 per cent. The Canadians other than French show a considerably higher percentage who were engaged in occupations other than specified than employees of other races, and none of the Poles were thus engaged.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The series of tabulations next presented set forth the average weekly earnings and the range in amount of weekly earnings of employees of the shoe-manufacturing industry in the East. The first table submitted shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week. TABLE 96.—Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

General nativity and

race.

Per cent earning each specified amount per week.
Number

Average
reporting
complete
earnings

$7.50
$12.50

$17.50
per week. $5 or

$10 or

$15 or data.

$20 or $25 or
or
or

or
over.
over.
over.

over. over.
over.
over.

over.

Native-born of native
father, White,
2,507 $12.79 99.7 94.7 78.3 46.6 35. 3

12.4

3.9 0.9 Native-born of foreign

father, by country of
birth of father:
Canada..
252 12.83 99. 2 94.4
77.0 46.0 34.5 14. 3

3. 2 England.

106 12. 82 100.0 97.2 80.2 37.7 29. 2 17.0 4.7 1.9 Germany. 124 13. 91 100.0 95. 2 83.9 51. 6 42. 7 25.0 9.7

.8 Ireland.

518 13.01 99.6 96.1 78.0 49.2 39. 4 13. 7 3. 9 * This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

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TABLE 96.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race-Continued.

Per cent earning each specified amount per week. Number General nativity and reporting

Average

earnings

complete
race.

$7.50
$12.50

$17.50
per week. $5 or

$10 or

$15 or data.

$20 or $25 or
or
ог

or
over
over.
over.

over. over.
over.
over.

over.

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The above table shows that of 6,668 male employees 18 years of age or over, 99.5 per cent earn $5 or over per week, 92.3 per cent earn $7.50 or over, 68.4 per cent $10 or over, 36.8 per cent $12.50 or over, 28 per cent $15 or over, 10.3 per cent $17.50 or over, 3 per cent $20 or over, and 0.6 per cent earn $25 or over per week. The percentage of employees of foreign birth earning each specified amount per week is smaller in every instance than that of the native whites born of native father or the native-born of foreign father. The employees who are native-born of foreign father exhibit a higher percentage earning $7.50 or over, $12.50 or over, $15 or over, $17.50 or over, and $20 or over than the native-born whites of native father; the latter show the same proportion as the former earning $25 or over per week and a higher percentage earning $5 or over and $10 or over per week. Among the foreign-born employees, the French Canadians, Canadians other than French, and English alone show proportions earning $25 or over per week. The Armenian, North Italian, Polish, and Slovak employees show no persons earning $20 or over per week, and no Polish or Slovak employees earn $17.50 or over per week. The English, German, Irish, and Lithuanian employees show 100 per cent earning $5 or over per week, and the Polish employees only 97.7 per cent earning this amount.

In the next table presented the percentage of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week is shown according to general nativity and race.

TABLE 97.Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of 2,664 female employees who are 18 years of age or over, 99.9 per cent earn $2.50 or over, 95 per cent $5 or over, 64.1 per cent $7.50 or over, 22.6 per cent $10 or over, and 2.5 per cent $15 or over per week. The foreign-born female employees show a lower percentage earning each specified amount per week than that shown in the totals for all employees, except the rate of $2.50 per week or over; here the foreign-born show a slightly higher per cent than that exhibited in the totals. Both female

employees who are nativeborn of foreign father and who are of foreign birth show 100 per cent earning $2.50 or over per week as contrasted with slightly smaller proportions of the native-born whites of native father. The female employees who are native-born of foreign father show a slightly higher per cent earning $5 or over, $7.50 or over, and $10 or over per week than either the native whites born of native father or the foreign-born, which follow in the order named. The female employees who are native whites born of native father show the highest percentage earning $15 or over per week, followed by the native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born in the order mentioned. Among the native-born of foreign father the females whose fathers were born in Ireland show the highest percentage earning $5 or over and $7.50 or over per week, while the female employees whose fathers were born in Canada show the highest percentage earning $10 or over and $15 or over per week. Among the foreignborn, all races show 100 per cent of female employees earning $2.50 or over per week; the French Canadians show the highest percentage earning each following specified amount per week and the Russian Hebrews the lowest percentage. None of the latter or Canadians other than French show any female employees earning $15 or over per week, and the proportion of the Russian Hebrew female employees earning $10 or over per week is very small.

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