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employees with a residence of from five to nine years, the Lithuanians show the highest percentage, and the English the lowest percentage. Among the males who have been in this country from ten to fourteen years the Lithuanians show the highest per cent and the Germans the lowest. Among those with a residence of from fifteen to nineteen years the English show the highest per cent and the Greeks the lowest. Among employees who have been in the United States twenty years or over the Irish show the highest per cent, and the Poles, Lithuanians, and Greeks less than 1 per cent having this period of residence. Among the female employees the Poles show the highest per cent who have been in the United States under five years, and the French Canadians the lowest. In the group including females with a residence of from five to nine years the North Italians show the highest per cent as contrasted with no Swedes in this group. Among those with a residence of from ten to fourteen years the South Italians show the highest per cent, while no Armenians, Germans, Greeks, Lithuanians, and Poles appear in this group. The Swedes show the highest percentage with a residence of from fifteen to nineteen years and the English the highest percentage who have been in the United States twenty years or over. No Armenians, Greeks, Lithuanians, Poles, or Russians have been in this country from fifteen to nineteen years and no Russian Hebrews, South Italians, Lithuanians, Poles, and Russians have a residence of twenty years or over.

Of the total, or 4,505, foreign-born employees reported, 36.9 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 22 per cent from five to nine years, 10 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 10.7 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 20.4 per cent have been in this country twenty years or over. The Greek employees and the Russians show a considerably higher percentage than employees of other specified races who have been in the United States under five years. The Russian Hebrews, the Poles, and the Slovaks show over 50 per cent having a residence of under five years as contrasted with only 9.1 per cent of the Germans, 9 per cent of the Canadians other than French, and 5.2 per cent of French Canadians who have been in this country under the above specified time. Among employees who have been in the United States from five to nine years, the Lithuanians, North Italians, Slovaks, and Poles show over 30 per cent, while the Germans, Canadians other than French, French Canadians, and English show comparatively small proportions having this period of residence. Among employees who have been in the United State from ten to fourteen years, the English show the highest percentage and the Germans the lowest. The Swedes show the highest percentage and the Lithuanians the lowest percentage of employees with a residence of from fifteen to nineteen years. In the group including employees who have been in this country twenty years or over, the Germans show the highest percentage and the Greeks, Lithuanians, and Poles the lowest proportions, each reporting less than 1 per cent having this period of residence.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial make-up of the operating force in the East at the present time is indicated by the table next presented, which shows by sex the number and percentage of employees of each race for whom information was secured.

TABLE 94.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race.

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The preceding table shows that information was secured for 12,392 persons employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in the East. Of this number, 8,581 are males and 3,811 are females. Of the males, 43.4 per cent are of foreign birth; 37.8 per cent are native whites born of native father; 18.7 per cent are native-born of foreign father, and less than 1 per cent are native-born negroes, while of the females, 23.2 per cent are of foreign birth; 48.8 per cent are native-born of native father, white; 27.8 per cent are native-born of foreign father, and less than 1 per cent are native-born negroes. Of the total number of males for whom information was secured, the South Italian is the only foreign-born race showing as high as 5 per cent, while, of the total number of females, no foreign-born race shows as high as 5 per cent. Those native-born whose fathers were born in Ireland show a larger proportion of the total number of males, as well as the total number of females, than those whose fathers were born in any other specified country.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United StatesWeekly earnings-Relation between period of residence and earning ability— [Text Tables 95 to 101 and General Tables 56 to 61].

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING TO THE UNITED STATES.

In order that an intelligent conception may be had of the economic status of immigrant employees in the East or North Atlantic States, it is necessary to set forth their industrial condition before emigrating from their native countries. Such an exhibit is also valuable in showing what training and experience foreign-born shoe-manufacturing employees had abroad in the same industry in which they are now employed; consequently, before entering into a discussion of their present economic status, the following table is submitted, which shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States:

TABLE 95.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Total...

2,362

4.8

31.5

3.0

7.2

7.9

5.5

40. 1

The preceding table shows that 40.1 per cent of the 2,362 foreignborn male employees who reported were engaged in shoe manufacturing before coming to the United States, 4.8 per cent were employed in other manufacturing, 31.5 per cent were farming or farm laborers, 3 per cent were general laborers, 7.2 per cent were in hand trades, 7.9 per

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