Lapas attēli
PDF
ePub

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born

employees—Racial classification of employees at the present time—[Text Tables 93 and 94 and General Table 55).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

The racial movements to the eastern States of persons engaged in the manufacture of shoes, so far as indicated by the Federal Census returns, by country of birth and parentage of foreign-born boot and shoe factory employees, have already been discussed. No more satisfactory statistics are available, but as further illustrative of the history of immigration to the industry, reference should be made to the racial displacements in the two representative shoe manufactur: ing communities of the East which are a part of the study of the eastern division of the industry. The racial movements and displacements which have occurred in these communities may be considered as typical of those to the industry as a whole in the eastern States.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES.

The racial movement to the East is also indicated by the following series of tables which shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years. Length of residence in this country of foreign-born operatives and period of employment in the industry are not necessarily identical, but they approximate each other and indicate the number of years each race has been employed. TABLE 93.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number

of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

MALE.

[blocks in formation]

TABLE 93.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number

of years, by seż and race-Continued.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

The preceding table shows that 38 per cent of the foreign-born male employees have been in the United States under five years and that 22.7 per cent have been in this country from five to nine years, as contrasted with 32.2 per cent of the foreign-born female employees who have been in the United States under five years and 18.9 per cent with a residence of from five to nine years.

In the groups including employees with a residence of from ten to fourteen, from fifteen to nineteen, and twenty years or over, the females show a higher proportion in each group mentioned than the male employees. Among the foreign-born male employees the Greeks show 72.6 per cent and the Russians, Russian Hebrews, Poles, and Slovaks over 50 per cent who have been in this country under five years. In this group the French Canadians show the smallest percentage. Among the male

[ocr errors]

or over.

employees with a residence of from five to nine years, the Lithuanians show the highest percentage, and the English the lowest percentage. Among the males who have been in this country from ten

to fourteen years the Lithuanians show the highest per cent and the Germans the lowest. Among those with a residence of from fifteen to nineteen years the English show the highest per cent and the Greeks the lowest. Among employees who have been in the United States twenty years or over the Irish show the highest per cent, and the Poles, Lithuanians, and Greeks less than 1 per cent having this period of residence. Among the female employees the Poles show the highest per cent who have been in the United States under five years, and the French Canadians the lowest. In the group including females with a residence of from five to nine years the North Italians show the highest per cent as contrasted with no Swedes in this group. Among those with a residence of from ten to fourteen years the South Italians show the highest per cent, while no Armenians, Germans, Greeks, Lithuanians, and Poles appear in this group. The Swedes show the highest percentage with a residence of from fifteen to nineteen years and the English the highest percentage who have been in the United States twenty years

No Armenians, Greeks, Lithuanians, Poles, or Russians have been in this country from fifteen to nineteen years and no Russian Hebrews, South Italians, Lithuanians, Poles, and Russians have a residence of twenty years or over.

Of the total, or 4,505, foreign-born employees reported, 36.9 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 22 per cent from five to nine years, 10 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 10.7 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 20.4 per cent have been in this country twenty years or over. The Greek employees and the Russians show a considerably higher percentage than employees of other specified races who have been in the United States under five years. The Russian Hebrews, the Poles, and the Slovaks show over 50 per cent having a residence of under five years as contrasted with only 9.1 per cent of the Germans, 9 per cent of the Canadians other than French, and 5.2 per cent of French Canadians who have been in this country under the above specified time. Among employees who have been in the United States from five to nine years, the Lithuanians, North Italians, Slovaks, and Poles show over 30 per cent, while the Germans, Canadians other than French, French Canadians, and English show comparatively small proportions having this period of residence. Among employees who have been in the United State from ten to fourteen years, the English show the highest percentage and the Germans the lowest. The Swedes show the highest percentage and the Lithuanians the lowest percentage of employees with a residence of from fifteen to nineteen years. In the group including employees who have been in this country twenty years or over,

the Germans show the highest percentage and the Greeks, Lithuanians, and Poles the lowest proportions, each reporting less than 1 per cent having this period of residence.

[ocr errors]

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial make-up of the operating force in the East at the present time is indicated by the table next presented, which shows by sex the number and percentage of employees of each race for whom information was secured.

TABLE 94.--Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]

22 368

2 134

14 175

1 716 61 1 3 2

25 593

5 234

24 275

1
1,259

76
2
5
3

.3 4.3 (a) 1.6

.2 2.0 (a) 8.3

.7

[ocr errors]

.1 5.9

..1 2.6

.3 2.6

.0 14.2

.2

4.8 (a)

1.9

.2

2.2 (a). 10.2

.6

ANO

(a)

543
15
1
2
1
1
12
29

[ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

135

4.4 3.3

187

1

136

54
544
404

2
1
4
1

3.5

4.9 (a)

0 .0

[ocr errors]

56

194

Native-born of native father:

White...

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by country
of birth of father:
Austria-Hungary.
Canada....
Denmark.
England.
France.
Germany.
Greece
Ireland.
Italy
Netherlands.
Norway..
Portugal.
Roumania
Russia
Scotland
Sweden.
Switzerland.

Wales.
Foreign-born, by race:

Albanian..
Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other
Croatian
Cuban..
Danish.
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
French.
German.
Greek
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other.
Irish
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Macedonian.
Magyar..
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian..
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Scotch-Irish.
Slovak
Slovenian
Swedish..
Syrian.
Turkish.
Welsh..
Australian (race not specified).
Austrian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified).

Grand total...
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born...

1.5
.0
.1
5

3
3.4

409 217

1 1 4

1 138

1

5 104 238 404

38 192 293 589 127

3 19

7 143

8 4 96

5 26

1.6 (a)

.1 1.0 2.0 4.3

[ocr errors]

2 18 11 129

9 112 37 57 20

[blocks in formation]

(a)

2 .1

1 20

(a)

1.3

1

7 122 249 533

47 304 330 646 147

3 19

8 163

8

4 110

5 44

1 387

3 91 12 4 2 1 11 3

.1

0.0

[ocr errors]

(a)

.1 (a)

1.1

.1 .3

14

9

(a)

18

1 34

[blocks in formation]

353

3

[merged small][ocr errors]

14

4.1 (a)

.9

.1 (a)

12 4 2 1 10 2

[ocr errors]

.1

1 1

(a)

(a) (a)

(a)

[blocks in formation]

The preceding table shows that information was secured for 12,392 persons employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry in the East.' Of this number, 8,581 are males and 3,811 are females. Of the males, 43.4 per cent are of foreign birth; 37.8 per cent are native whites born of native father; 18.7 per cent are native-born of foreign father, and less than 1 per cent are native-born negroes, while of the females, 23.2 per cent are of foreign birth; 48.8 per cent are native-born of native father, white; 27.8 per cent are native-born of foreign father, and less than 1 per cent are native-born negroes. Of the total number of males for whom information was secured, the South Italian is the only foreign-born race showing as high as 5 per cent, while, of the total number of females, no foreign-born race shows as high as 5 per cent. Those native-born whose fathers were born in Ireland show a larger proportion of the total number of males, as well as the total number of females, than those whose fathers were born in any other specified country.

7

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »