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PART IL-THE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN

THE EAST.

GENERAL SURVEY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Employees for whom information was secured-Representative boot and shoe manufacturing communities-[Text Table 92 and General Table 54].

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

As has already been pointed out, the data secured for employees has been used as a basis for the statistical survey of the industry in the East. The data secured from the households investigated appear in the studies of representative communities designated as A and B. The following table shows by sex the number and percentage of employees of each race for whom information was secured in the East:

TABLE 92.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race.

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a Less than 0.05 per cent.

TABLE 92.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race-Continued.

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Foreign-born...

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8,581

3,811

12,392

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1,601

1,000

2,661

18.7

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4,613

23.2

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

REPRESENTATIVE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING COMMUNITIES.

In addition to the statistical survey of the industry in the East, two community studies are added to this geographical division of the report. These communities are primarily engaged in the manufacture of boots and shoes, and immigrants of both recent and past years have been extensively employed in their factories. These community studies, as in the case of other industries, are presented for the following reasons: First, to secure a verification of the tendencies exhibited by the more extended tabulations; second, to present material not included in the statistical tables but bearing directly upon American life and institutions, and third, to attempt to reach more definite conclusions as to the economic effects of immigration.

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees-Racial classification of employees at the present time-[Text Tables 93 and 94 and General Table 55].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

The racial movements to the eastern States of persons engaged in the manufacture of shoes, so far as indicated by the Federal Census returns, by country of birth and parentage of foreign-born boot and shoe factory employees, have already been discussed. No more satisfactory statistics are available, but as further illustrative of the history of immigration to the industry, reference should be made to the racial displacements in the two representative shoe manufactur ing communities of the East which are a part of the study of the eastern division of the industry. The racial movements and displacements which have occurred in these communities may be considered as typical of those to the industry as a whole in the eastern States.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES.

The racial movement to the East is also indicated by the following series of tables which shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years. Length of residence in this country of foreign-born operatives and period of employment in the industry are not necessarily identical, but they approximate each other and indicate the number of years each race has been employed.

TABLE 93.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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TABLE 93.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race-Continued.

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Swedish.

89

21.3

16.9

15.7

22.5

23.6

Total..

4.505

36.9

22.0

10.0

10.7

20.4

years and

The preceding table shows that 38 per cent of the foreign-born male employees have been in the United States under five that 22.7 per cent have been in this country from five to nine years, as contrasted with 32.2 per cent of the foreign-born female employees who have been in the United States under five years and 18.9 per cent with a residence of from five to nine years. In the groups including employees with a residence of from ten to fourteen, from fifteen to nineteen, and twenty years or over, the females show a higher proportion in each group mentioned than the male employees. Among the foreign-born male employees the Greeks show 72.6 per cent and the Russians, Russian Hebrews, Poles, and Slovaks over 50 per cent who have been in this country under five years. In this group the French Canadians show the smallest percentage. Among the male

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