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TABLE 90.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Slovak.

532

99.3

95.6

97.6

305

100.0

91.6

95. 1

356

77.8

61.7

62.1

548

98.9

89.8

91.2

356

97.1

71.7

76.7

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Total...

96.3

50.3

4,294

98.8

69.2

75.1

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of 4,294 individuals employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry the greater proportion, or 75.1 per cent, speak English, and 98.8 per cent of those who were under 14 and 69.2 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over when they came to the United States speak English. Among those who were under 14 years of age on coming to the United States, over 95 per cent of each race, except the Greeks, speak English, and in the case of those who were 14 years of age or over on coming to the United States the proportions are lower in each instance. The older immigrant races and the Russian Hebrews show a considerably higher proportion than the more recent races, and the difference in proportions of the two age groups is not so marked with them. Among the males it is seen from returns made by 3,730 who reported that the totals are very nearly the same as that shown in the totals for both males and females. All races except the Greeks show more than 95 per cent of those who were under

14 years of age on coming to the United States as able to speak English, while the proportions are very much reduced, especially among the more recent races, the Russian Hebrews excepted, with those who were 14 years of age or over. Of 564 females 78.5 per cent speak English, while of those who came to the United States under 14 years of age 98.4 per cent speak English and 63.2 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States. Among the different races reporting it is seen that a very high proportion of those who were under 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States, of all races, can speak English, while a very much lower precentage is shown by those who were 14 years of age or over at the time of coming. This difference is more marked in cases of the more recent immigrant races, especially the Slovak and Polish races.

The following table shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English: TALBE 91.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

MALE.

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Slovak.

376

65.9

88.9

50.3

Total..

29.6

4,294

54.6

83.3

96.0

75.1

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

From information secured from 4,294 employees in the shoemanufacturing industry it is seen that the greater proportion or 75.1 per cent speak English. The increase in each of the periods of residence over the one preceding is quite marked. More than 80 per cent of the Canadian French, Russian Hebrews, and Germans who have been in the United States under five years can speak English, while of the other races all except the Greek and North Italian show less than 50 per cent in this period who can speak English. Only the Polish, Slovak, and South Italian races show less than 80 per cent in the five to nine year period who can speak English, while all races other than these show higher than 90 per cent who can speak English in the ten year or over period. The older immigrant races and the Russian Hebrew show higher proportions in each period.

Among the 3,730 males reporting it is seen that the totals are slightly lower throughout than the totals shown for the females. Among the males who have been in the United States under five years, the Germans, with 92.6 per cent, show the highest proportion and the Slovaks, with 32.6, the lowest, and in the case of the females the Canadian French, with 100 per cent, show the highest and the Slovaks, with 4.8 per cent, the lowest. In the period from five to nine years in the United States, the French Canadians, with 97.1 per cent, show the highest proportion among the males, while with the females the Germans and Russian Hebrews show 100 per cent who can speak English, the Slovaks showing the lowest proportions in both cases. In the ten year or over period the Russian Hebrews show the highest proportion among the males speaking English and the South Italians the lowest, while 100 per cent of the females of the German, Russian Hebrew, North Italian, and Polish races speak English.

PART II. THE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING

INDUSTRY IN THE EAST.

323

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