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Table 78.Per cent of employees within each age group, by sex and general nativity and

race-Continued.

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19,946

27.9

15. 1

10.6

6.4

2.7

Grand tota......
Total native-born of foreign father..
Total native-born
Total foreign-born..

23.9

13.4

5, 110 14, 494 5,452

32.5
32.1
16.7

23.6
23.5
24.9

14.6
13.8
18. 5

9.9
9.5
13. 4

13.1
12. 4
16.0

5.0
6. 1
7.2

1.2 2.5 3.3

The preceding table compiled from data secured from 19,946 persons employed in this industry shows that 27.9 per cent are from 14 to 19, 23.9 per cent are from 20 to 24, 15.1 per cent are from 25 to 29, 10.6 per cent are from 30 to 34, 13.4 per cent are from 35 to 44, 6.4 per cent are from 45 to 54 and 2.7 per cent are 55 years of age or over. In the group of employees from 14 to 19 years of age those nativeborn of foreign father show the highest percentage, closely followed by the native whites born of native father, while the foreign-born show comparatively small proportions. Among the employees from 20 to 24, 25 to 29, 30 to 34, and 35 to 44 years of age, the foreign-born show the highest percentage followed by the native-born of foreign father and the native whites born of native father. Among the employees from 45 to 54 and 55 years of age or over the foreign-born continue to show the largest proportion followed by the native whites born of native father and the native-born of foreign father, in the order named. Among the employees who were native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in Italy show the highest percentage who are from 14 to 19 years of age. The employees whose fathers were born in Canada show the highest percentage who were from 20 to 24 years of age and those whose fathers were born in Ireland the highest percentage from 25 to 29 years of age.

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The employees whose fathers were born in Scotland show the highest percentage who are from 30 to 34, from 35 to 44, and 55 years of age or over, and the employees whose fathers were born in England show the highest percentage who are from 45 to 54 years of age. Among the foreign-born, the Greek employees show the highest percentage from 14 to 19 years of age, the Russian Hebrew employees the highest percentage who were from 20 to 24, the Lithuanian employees the highest percentage from 25 to 29, the Swedish employees the highest percentage from 30 to 34 and also from 35 to 44 years of age, while

, the German employees show the highest percentage from 45 to 54 and 55 years of age or over. It is particularly noticeable that the older immigrant races show a much higher percentage of employees of an advanced age than the races from southern and eastern Europe. In comparing the males and the females in the preceding table it will be observed that a greater proportion of female employees than of the male employees are from 14 to 19 and from 20 to 24 years of age. The male employees show a greater proportion of persons who are from 25 to 55 years of age or over than the females.

CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes—Status of children in the households studied-Citizenship

Ability to speak English-[Text Tables 79 to 91 and General Tables 45 to 53).

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

Home ownership by families, the heads of which were of foreign birth, may be considered a strong indication of permanent settlement, and the facts in this connection relative to the families, the heads of which were employed in the shoe industry, are set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of head of family: Table 79.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race

of head of family.

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Of the total number of families shown in the above table 14.3 per cent own homes. Families native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage owning homes, closely followed by those nativeborn of native father, while foreign-born report somewhat smaller proportions than native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born races the Irish show 53.7 per cent of their families owning homes, which is a proportion far higher than that of any of the other races given in the table. Syrians and English follow with 20 and 19.4 per cent, respectively, while South Italians, with 3.4 per cent of families owning homes, show the smallest proportion of the foreign-born races.

STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The status of children in the households studied may be seen in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age who were at home, at school, and at work:

TABLE 80.—Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at

work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Total native-born of foreign father..
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born...

304 394 180

4.3 3.6 4.8

90.5 92. 4 84.9

5. 3 4.1 10.2

Ninety per cent are at school of the total number of children 6 and under 16 years of age for whom data were obtained. Six per cent are at work; 4 per cent are at home.

The native-born of native father show the maximum proportion, 98.9 per cent, at school; the foreign-born, the minimum proportion, 84.9 per cent. The foreign-born have a comparatively large proportion of children at work.

A slightly greater proportion of males are at school than of females. The latter sex, on the contrary, has a larger proportion at work and at home.

Moreover, in each class of children, by general nativity, the proportion of children at school is largest among the males, and the proportion of female children at work is greater than the proportion of male children.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child, the number and percentage of children in the households studied, 6 and under 16 years of age, who were at home, at school, and at work.

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TABLE 81.-Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at

school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more

children born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.]

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In comparing the first and second generations of Hebrews and South Italians it will be noted that a greater proportion of the children born in the United States, of each race are in school than of the children born abroad. A larger proportion of the children born abroad of the Hebrew and South Italian races are at home and at work than of the children of these races born in the United States. The difference between the groups of South Italian children again is most marked.

CITIZENSHIP.

The table next presented shows, by race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who had been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. 48296°

-Vol 12-11

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