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forth. The table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms:

TABLE 63.- Number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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From the above table it appears that 710 households had an average of nearly 5 rooms per household and more than 2 sleeping rooms. The averages per household of the foreign-born are nearly the same as the general averages, but the average number of rooms per household among the second generation is larger. The greater degree of crowding among the foreign-born in the locality is shown by their higher percentages of those sleeping in all rooms, all except one, and all except two, this nativity group being above the average in each class. The Polish, Lithuanians, Hebrews, and Greeks show the most congested conditions.

CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition—Visits abroad— Age classification of employees and

members of their households—[Text Tables 64 to 78 and General Tables 35 to 44).

LITERACY.

The general literacy of the employees of the shoe manufacturing industry is set forth in the two tables which follow. The first table presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the per cent of employees for whom information was secured who were able to read and per cent who were able both to read and to write.

TABLE 64.—Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of native father,
White...

5,358 Native-born of foreign father,

by country of birth of
father:
Austria-Hungary

110 Canada...

371 England..

192 Germany

1, 120 Ireland.

829 Italy,

74 Scotland.

70 Foreign-born, by race: Armenian.

131 Bohemian and Moravian. 103 Canadian, French.

402 Canadian, Other.. English..

153 Gerinan.

241 Greek

348 Hebrew, Russian

431 Irish..

210 Italian, North.

329 Italian, South

618 Lithuanian.

125 Polish.

189 Russian

109 Slovak.

351 Swedish

97 Grand total...

12,717

96.2
99.0
92.5

209

99.5

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100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.5
54.5
94. 4
97.5
97.3

98.7 99. 2 94.5 97.2 98.6 92.7 89.5 85.6 85. 2 83.5 94.3 100.0

96.4 99.1 94.4 99.7 99.1 99.0 93.3 96.6 98. 2 93.2 88.8 81.9 86.9 84.6 93.0 100.0

81.1

57.9 100.0 92.9 79.4 100.0

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Total native-born of foreign

father.. Total native-born. Total foreign-born..

2,924 8,337 4,380

2,025 4.949
5, 606 13,943

957 5,337

99.8
99.8
95.1

100.0
99.7
96.1

99.9
99.8
95.3

99.7
99.7
93.9

99.9
99.6
95.3

99.8 99.7 94.1

From information secured from 19,280 employees in the shoemanufacturing industry, 98.5 per cent can read and 98.2 per cent can both read and write. Of 12,717 males and 6,563 females constituting the totals, a slightly lower percentage of the males can read and both read and write than the females. Comparing the nativity groups, it is seen that but a very slight difference exists in the proportions of males and females who can read and both read and write of the native-born of native father or native-born of foreign father, while both of these classes show considerably higher proportions in both the male and female groups than the foreign-born. Among the different foreign-born races it is seen that all races except the Russians and Lithuanians show proportions higher. than 90 per cent who can read, and all races except those above mentioned, and the Polish and South Italian, show more than 90 per cent who can both read and write. The most marked differences in the proportions who can read and both read and write shown by males and females exist in the case of the following races: Greek, Lithuanian, and Slovak, and in each instance the males show the higher proportions.

The following table shows, by sex, general nativity, and race of individual, the percentage of persons 10 years of age or over, in the households studied, who read, and the per cent who both read and write.

TABLE 65.Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read

and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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The above table is concerned with the conditions of literacy among 2,664 persons over 6 years of age. The notable point which the table brings out is the advance in education made by the second generation over the foreign-born. Thus, while practically all the second generation of each sex can both read and write, only 83.4 per cent of the foreign-born men and 71.6 per cent of the foreign-born women studied are literate. Slightly higher proportions of each sex among the foreign-born can read but not write. Among the races the Lithuanians show the highest degree of illiteracy, only 61.5 per cent of the men and 36.8 per cent of the women being able to read and write. The Hebrews show a notably high proportion of each sex who can both read and write.

The table next presented shows the percentage of employees who read, by sex, by general nativity and race, and by locality.

TABLE 66.—Per cent of employees who read, by locality, by sex, and by general nativity

and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting in each locality. The totals, however, are

for all races.)

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Over 95 per cent of the total number reporting in each locality in the preceding table can read.

The native-born females whose fathers were born abroad (in England, Germany, or Ireland) show 100 per cent who read, while the native-born males whose fathers were born in Ireland show 100 per cent, and those whose fathers were born in Germany and England 99.8 per cent and 99.5 per cent, respectively.

The degree of literacy which prevails among persons of foreign birth after designated periods of residence in this country may be seen from the next table presented. This table shows, by years in

. the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreignborn persons 10 years of age or over who read and the percentage who both read and write.

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