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CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupied-Size of households studied-Congestion-[Text Tables 51 to 63 and General Tables 23 to 34].

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The monthly rent payments of the households the heads of which are employed in the shoe manufacturing industry are significant in their bearing upon the standard of living of the employees because of the practice of crowding persons in the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent outlay. The prevailing condition is disclosed by the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average rent per month per apartment, per room, and per person:

TABLE 51.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Total foreign-born..

reporting Apartment. Room.
amount.

Person.

75

$15.76

$3.08

$4.30

9

(a)

(a)

(a)

27

15.03

2.94

3.22

47

12.06

2.49

2.22

89

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11.94

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The above table shows that the average rent per apartment per month is $12.63, the average rent per room per month is $2.69, and the average rent per person per month is $2.44. Persons nativeborn of native father report the highest rent per apartment per

month, closely followed by persons native-born of foreign father, while the average monthly rent of foreign-born persons is much lower than that of the two first named. The same order is preserved showing the monthly rent per room and per person, in each instance the monthly rent of foreign-born being much lower than that of nativeborn of native father and native-born of foreign father. Among the foreign-born, English persons report the highest rent per month per apartment and per person and Hebrews the highest rent per month per room. Syrians show the lowest monthly rent per apartment and per room, while Poles show the lowest monthly rent per person.

The range in monthly rent payments is indicated by the following table. This table shows the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, according to general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 52.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Total foreign-born..

482

.8

11.94

12.0

37.6

58.3

Of 593 households reported in the above table, 0.8 per cent pay under $5, 9.9 per cent pay under $7.50, 31.7 per cent pay under $10, and 52.6 per cent pay under $12.50 monthly rental per apartment. The average rent per month per apartment for all households is $12.63. Households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show 2.8 per cent paying under $5, as contrasted with 0.8 per cent of the households the heads of which are foreign-born, and no households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father paying under this amount. The households the heads of which are of foreign birth show a considerably higher per cent than those the heads of which are native-born of foreign father paying under $7.50 monthly rental per apartment, while no households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father pay under this amount. Households the heads of which are of foreign birth show a considerably higher per cent paying under $10 and under $12.50 than the house

holds the heads of which are native-born whites of native father and those whose heads are native-born of foreign father, which follow in the order named.

The households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father pay an average monthly rental per apartment of $15.76, the average rent paid by the households the heads of which are nativeborn of foreign father is $15.37, while the households the heads of which are of foreign birth pay $11.94.

Households the heads of which are South Italians, Poles, and Lithuanians show small proportions paying under $5 rent per month per apartment, as contrasted with no households whose heads are of other specified races paying under this amount. The households the heads of which are Poles show 32.6 per cent, as contrasted with no households the heads of which are English paying under $7.50 rent per month per apartment. The households the heads of which are Poles also show the highest per cent and those whose heads are English the lowest per cent paying under $10, and the households the heads of which are Lithuanians show the highest per cent and those whose heads are English the lowest per cent paying under $12.50 rent per month per apartment.

The households the heads of which are native-born of Irish father pay an average rent per month per apartment of $15.03. Among households whose heads are of foreign birth, those whose heads are English pay the highest monthly rental per apartment, or $14.93, and those whose heads are Poles pay the lowest average rent per month, or $9.49. The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per room.

TABLE 53.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The foregoing table shows 0.5 per cent of households paying under $1 rent per month per room, 16.9 per cent pay under $2 rent per room per month, 62.1 per cent pay under $3, and 87.5 per cent pay under $4 rent per room per month. Households native-born of foreign father show the greatest proportion paying under $1 rent per room per month, followed by foreign-born in very small proportions, while native-born of native father have no households paying under this amount. Foreign-born show a high percentage of households paying under $2 rent per room per month when contrasted with households native-born of foreign father and native-born of native-father. Foreign-born also show a considerably greater proportion paying under $3 and under $4 rent per room per month than either nativeborn of native father or native-born of foreign father. Native-born of native father show a higher percentage than native-born of foreign father paying under $3 rent per room per month, and native-born of foreign father show a higher percentage of households paying under $4 rent per room per month than native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born, South Italians and French Canadians show small proportions paying under $1 rent per room per month. French Canadians show the highest percentage and Hebrews the lowest paying under $2 rent per room per month, French Canadians the highest and Hebrews the lowest per cent paying under $3 rent per room per month, and Armenians the highest percentage of households and Greeks the lowest paying under $4 rent per room per month.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per person:

TABLE 54.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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