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portion of the South Italians, North Italians, and Greeks worked six months or over. The other specified races worked in the greater proportion of cases nine months or over.

The following table shows, according to general nativity and race of individual, the number of months worked during the past year by females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over:

TABLE 49.- Months worked during the past year by females 16 years of age or over employed

away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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The above table shows that nearly all of the 295 women included worked three months or over during the past year and 33.9 per cent worked the whole year. The native-born of foreign father have a higher proportion in each group than the foreign-born. Of the four foreign-born races enumerated the Hebrews had above the average number employed all the year.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which the operatives studied were members of labor organizations is set forth in the table next presented. It shows by general nativity and race of individual the affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over in the households studied.

Table 50.-- Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over working for

wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of the 1,039 males for whom information was obtained, only 36.8 per cent are affiliated with trade unions—the foreign-born reporting 37.1 per cent as compared with 43 per cent of the native-born of foreign father and 28.8 per cent of the native whites born of native father. Among the foreign-born races, it will be noted that the English, with 73.5 per cent affiliated with trade unions, show a slightly larger proportion than do the French Canadians or Syrians, a considerably larger proportion than do the Greeks or Armenians, and a much larger proportion than do the Hebrews, Irish, Lithuanians, South Italians, or Poles, in the order named. Considering the number of Poles for whom information was obtained, it will be seen that the proportion taking an active interest in trade unions is very low as compared with the other races.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living—Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments

occupied-Size of households studied-Congestion-[Text Tables 51 to 63 and General Tables 23 to 34).

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The monthly rent payments of the households the heads of which are employed in the shoe manufacturing industry are significant in their bearing upon the standard of living of the employees because of the practice of crowding persons in the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent outlay. The prevailing condition is disclosed by the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average rent per month per apartment, per room, and per person: Table 51.- Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The above table shows that the average rent per apartment per month is $12.63, the average rent per room per month is $2.69, and the average rent per person per month is $2.44. Persons nativeborn of native father report the highest rent per apartment per month, closely followed by persons native-born of foreign father, while the average monthly rent of foreign-born persons is much lower than that of the two first named. The same order is preserved showing the monthly rent per room and per person, in each instance the monthly rent of foreign-born being much lower than that of nativeborn of native father and native-born of foreign father. Among the foreign-born, English persons report the highest rent per month per apartment and per person and Hebrews the highest rent per month per room. Syrians show the lowest monthly rent per apartment and per room, while Poles show the lowest monthly rent per person.

The range in monthly rent payments is indicated by the following table. This table shows the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, according to general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 52.- Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of 593 households reported in the above table, 0.8 per cent pay under $5, 9.9 per cent pay under $7.50, 31.7 per cent pay under $10, and 52.6 per cent pay under $12.50 monthly rental per apartment. The average rent per month per apartment for all households is $12.63.

Households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show 2.8 per cent paying under $5, as contrasied with 0.8 per cent of the households the heads of which are foreign-born, and no households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father paying under this amount. The households the heads of which are of foreign birth show a considerably higher per cent than those the heads of which are native-born of foreign father paying under $7.50 monthly rental per apartment, while no households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father pay under this amount. Households the heads of which are of foreign birth show a considerably higher per cent paying under $10 and under $12.50 than the house

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