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TABLE 43.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see p. 525. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

This column includes 21 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."
This column includes 7 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."

TABLE 44.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers,
by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see p. 525. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.]

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Irish..

(b)

9.1

9.1

14.3

Italian, South.

37.8

31.6

52.9

39.7

Lithuanian.

88.6

83.3

40.0

82.8

Polish.

82.8

75.0

60.0

77.8

Grand total..

46.7

42.9

35.7

41.7

Total native-born of foreign father..

(b)

33.3

34.6

34.9

Total native-born..

42.9

30.3

25.7

28.1

Total foreign-born..

46.8

46.2

40.5

44.8

a This column includes 7 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of a total number of 229 families whose heads have a yearly income of less than $400, 46.7 per cent of the wives either have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. Where the husband's income is between $400 and $600 yearly, 42.9 per cent of the wives either have employment or keep boarders or fodgers, and where it is $600 or over the proportion of wives who either have employment or keep boarders or lodgers is 35.7 per cent. In each specified rate of earnings the proportion for the foreign-born is greater than for the native-born of foreign father, excepting the first column, when the number of the latter group reporting is too small for computation. Among those who earn under $400 yearly, the Lithuanians, with 88.6 per cent, show the largest proportion of wives who either have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. The Poles show a proportion almost as large as that shown by the Lithuanians. The Greeks show 40 per cent and the French Canadians and South Italians each between 30 and 40 per cent. Among the families the heads of which earn yearly between $400 and $600, the Lithuanians show that 83.3 per cent of the wives either have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. This is the largest proportion, and the French Canadians, next to the Greeks, who show zero, show the smallest proportion. Sixty per cent each of the wives of the Armenian and Polish husbands who earn $600 or more during the year, either have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. The South Italians, with 52.9 per cent, show the next highest proportion, and the Irish, with 9.1 per cent, show the smallest proportion.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The two tables next presented exhibit the sources of family income in detail. The first of these, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources. The past year referred to in the table means the twelve months immediately preceding the collection of data.

TABLE 45.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races Two families excluded which report income as "none."]

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Greek.

33

9.11

18.2

93.9

12.1

24.2

a For selection of families, see p. 525.

TABLE 45.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, etc.—Continued.

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Of the 650 families selected for study, the greater proportion have an income from earnings of husband than from any other source. The proportion is 92 per cent as compared with 33.4 per cent who have an income from payments of boarders or lodgers, 24.2 per cent from children, and 10.8 per cent from earnings of wife. The foreignborn races show a greater proportion of families having an income from each of these sources than do the native-born of foreign father. One hundred per cent each of the Armenian, Lithuanian, and Polish families studied have an income from earnings of husband, while more than 90 per cent each of the French Canadians, English, Greeks, and South Italians have an income from husbands' earnings. The Irish show the smallest proportion of families who have an income from earnings of husband.

None of the Irish families have an income from earnings of wife. The English show the largest proportion who have an income from that source. The Armenians, Hebrews, and South Italians show less than 10 per cent each. The Irish report the largest proportion of families who have an income from contributions of children. The proportion is 64.5 per cent as compared with 5.6 per cent of the Poles or none of the Lithuanians. Only 8.7 per cent of the English families have an income from payments of boarders or lodgers, as compared with 73.4 per cent of the Lithuanians. Among the families having an income from sources other than those specified, the Irish show the largest proportion and the South Italians the smallest. The proportion of Irish families is 32.3 per cent. The next highest, which is only 18.2 per cent, is shown by the Greeks.

The table next presented also shows the sources of family income, according to general nativity and race of head of family, but differs from the preceding table in that each specified source is exclusive of all other sources.

TABLE 46.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see p. 525.

Of 650 families selected for study the above table shows that 34.8 per cent have their entire income from husband, 21.8 per cent from husband and boarders and lodgers, 11.7 per cent from husband and children, 6.6 per cent from husband and wife, and 19.1 per cent from sources or combination of sources not specified, less than 3 per cent having entire income from each other specified source. Comparing the nativity groups, it is seen that those the heads of which are native-born of native father show the largest and those the heads of which are foreign-born the smallest proportion having the entire income from husband or sources or combination of sources not specified. Practically the same proportions of each nativity group have entire income from husband and wife. The families the heads of which are native-born of native father show the largest and the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father the smallest proportion having their entire income from husband and children. Less than 2 per cent of the families the heads of which are of each nativity group have their entire income from husband, wife, and children; wife; wife and children. The proportion of families having their entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers is largest of those the heads of which are foreign-born and smallest of those the heads of which are native-born of native father. The proportion of families having entire income from children, or children and boarders or lodgers, is less than 5 per cent for any nativity group. No families report an entire income from boarders and lodgers or wife and boarders or lodgers.

Considering the foreign-born families, it is seen that those the heads of which are Armenians or French Canadians are the only ones showing a proportion having entire income from husband, wife, and children, and those the heads of which are French Canadians are the only ones showing a proportion having entire income from wife, or wife and children. Less than 10 per cent of the families the heads of which are of any of the specified races, except English, Greek, or Polish, have their entire income from husband and wife, and less than 10 per cent of those the heads of which are of any of the specified races except Canadian French, English, Hebrew, or Irish, have their entire income from husband and children. Over 20 per cent of the families the heads of which are of any of the specified races, except Canadian French, English, or Irish, draw their entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers, those the heads of which are Lithuanians or Polish showing 54.7 per cent and 50 per cent, respectively, as having entire income from this source. Over 20 per cent of the families the heads of which are Irish, as compared with less than 5 per cent of the families the heads of which are of any of the other specified races, except Hebrew, have their entire income from children. Over 15 per cent of the families the heads of which are of any of the specified races, except Italian, South, have their entire income from sources or combination of sources not specified, those the heads of which are Irish showing the largest proportion, or 32.3 per cent.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The extent to which the families studied depend upon the designated sources of income is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of total yearly income from husband, wife, children, boarders, or lodgers, and other sources:

TABLE 47.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders, or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see p. 525.

b Less than 0.05 per cent.

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