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TABLE 17.-Race of employees for whom information was secured, by locality and by sex;

per cent distribution-Continued.

FEMALE.

Per cent distribution in each speci

fied locality.

General nativity and race.

East.

Middle
West.

Total boots and

shoes,

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Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father:

Australia.
Austria-Hungary
Belgium..
Canada
Denmark
England.
France.
Germany.
Ireland."
Italy
Netherlands.
Norway
Portugal.
Roumania
Russia.
Scotland.
Sweden..
Switzerland.

Wales..
Foreign-born, by race:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other..
Croatian..
English.
Finnish
French.
German.
Greek,
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other.
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Norwegian
Polish
Russian
Scotch.
Scotch-Irish
Slovak.
Spanish.
Swedish
Syrian..
Welsh.
Austrian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified).

Grand total...
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

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TABLE 17.-Race of employees for whom information was secured, by locality and by sez;

per cent distribution, Continued.

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Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father-Con.

Denmark..
England..
France.
Germany.
Greece..
Ireland.
Italy
Mexico..
Netherlands.
Norway.
Portugal.
Roumania.
Russia..
Scotland..
Spain..
Sweden.
Switzerland.
Wales.

Africa (country not specified).
Foreign-born, by race:

Albanian
Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian..
Canadian, French.
Canadian, other..
Croatian..
Cuban.
Danish
Dutch.
English..
Finnish.
French
German
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other
Irish...
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Macedonian.
Magyar.
Mexican.
Norwegian.
Polish
Portuguese
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch..
Scotch-Irish
Servian...
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Spanish.
Swedish.
Syrian..
Turkish.
Welsh
Australian (race not specified).
Austrian (race not specified).
Belgian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified).

Grand total.....

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Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

21.5 62.8 37.2

32.4
88.9
11.1

25.6 72.7 27.3

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

Of the total number of persons employed in the shoe-manufacturing industry for whom information was secured, 46.7 per cent are native whites born of native father; 27.3 per cent are foreign-born; 25.6 per cent are native-born of foreign father; and less than 1 per cent are native-born of native father, negro. Of the total number of employees for whom information was secured in each of the two localities the largest proportion are native-born of native father, white. Among the nativity groups the smallest proportion in the East are native-born of foreign father and with the same exception the smallest proportion in the Middle West are foreign-born. A comparison between the total number of males and the total number of females employed in each locality, for whom information was secured, it is seen that a larger proportion of the males than of the females are foreign-born and a larger proportion of the females than of the males are native-born of foreign father and native whites born of native father.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States—General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied-General occupations of women at the present time, in the householdsstudied-Comparison of occupations of the first and second generations-Weekly earnings-Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over, in the households studiedAnnual earnings of females 18 years of age or over, in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income-[Text Tables 18 to 47 and General Tables 6 to 21).

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering upon a discussion of the economic status of the shoe-manufacturing employees in this country, the general industrial condition and principal occupation while abroad of foreign-born employees and members of their households are considered. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreignborn males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country:

TABLE 18.Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males

who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

Race of individual.

Num-
Number-

Per cent-
ber
report-

ing With-Work- Work-Work- With- Work-Work-Work-
com- out ing ing ing out ing ing ing
plete Occu- for without for OCCU- for without for
data. pation. wages. wages. profit. pation. wages. wages. profit.

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Of the 828 males reporting complete data in the foregoing table, the largest proportion or 36.5 per cent-were working for wages before

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