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TABLE 8.-Race of employees for whom information was secured, by locality and by ser;

per cent distribution-Continued.

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Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father:

Australia.
Austria-Hungary
Belgium...
Canada.
Denmark.
England.
France.
Germany.
Greece.
Ireland.
Italy.
Mexico
Netherlands
Norway.
Portugal..
Roumania.
Russia..
Scotland.
Spain..
Sweden.
Switzerland.
Wales.

Africa (country not specified).
Foreign-born, by race:

Albanian
Armenian
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other..
Croatian..
Cuban.
Danish.
Dutch..
English.
Finnish
French.
Gerinan..
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other
Irish..
Italian, North.
Italian, South
Lithuanian
Macedonian.
Magyar..
Mexican.
Norwegian.
Polish,
Portuguese
Roumanian
Russian.

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

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TABLE 8.-Race of employees for whom information was secured, by locality and by sex;

per cent distribution-Continued.

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Foreign-born, by race-Continued.

Ruthenian..
Scotch..
Scotch-Irish.
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian
Spanish.
Swedish
Syrian.
Turkish.
Welsh
Australian (race not specified).
Austrian (rare not specified).
Belgian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified)..

Grand total......
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

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100.0

100.0

21.5
62.8
37.2

32. 4
88.9
11.1

25.6
72.7
27.3

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born

employees and members of their households—Racial classification of employees at the present time-[Text Tables 9 to 17 and General Tables 4 and 5).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

Data showing in detail the history of immigration to the boot and shoe manufacturing industry are unavailable. The returns of the United States Census Office show, however, the racial composition of the working force in the years 1880, 1890, and 1900, and from the figures given by the census, it is possible to determine the movement of immigration to the industry in a general way. The following table shows the racial composition of the boot and shoe workers in the States of Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, and New Jersey, and in the United States as a whole, in 1880;

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TABLE 9.-- Number of boot and shoe workers in the United States and in selected States, by

country of birth, 1880.

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In the above table employees are classified by country of birth. There were at the time of the census 194,079 boot and shoe workers in the United States—6,538 in Illinois, 58,900 in Massachusetts, 3,845 in Missouri, and 6,832 in New Jersey. It appears from the table that 124,691 workers, or almost two-thirds of all the workers in the country, were of native birth. The proportion of native-born employees was much larger in Massachusetts and New Jersey than in Illinois and Missouri. Of the foreign-born employees those of Irish and Canadian birth had, in the order mentioned, the largest representation in Massachusetts, while the Germans were present in the largest numbers in the other three States for which the figures are given. In the country, as a whole, the Germans and the Irish, in the order mentioned, were present in larger numbers than persons of any other foreign nativity. None of the countries of southern or eastern .

Europe are included in the census classification. It will be noted, however, that the figures reported under “Other countries” comparatively small.

The following table shows the number of boot and shoe workers in the States referred to above, in 1890, by general nativity and by country of birth:

Table 10.-Number of boot and shoe workers in the United States and in selected States, by

general nativity and country of birth, 1890.

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In the year 1890 there were 213,544 boot and shoe workers in the country as a whole—7,684 in Illinois, 68,873 in Massachusetts, 4,676 in Missouri, and 8,089 in New Jersey. Slightly over one-third of all the employees in the United States were of foreign birth. As in 1880, the proportion of foreign-born workers was considerably higher in Illinois and in Missouri than in Massachusetts and New Jersey. Of the foreign-born employees of the races for which figures are given, the Germans had the largest representation in the country as a whole. In Massachusetts the Irish and French and English Canadians were present in large numbers, while there were very few Germans. Upon the other hand, in Illinois, Missouri, and New Jersey, the Germans outnumbered the persons of any other foreign nativity. Natives of Sweden and Norway were present in considerable numbers in Illinois, while the Irish ranked next after the German in Mssouri and New Jersey. As was the case in the preceding census, natives of southern and eastern Europe were not classified separately, and the number of employees reported under “Other countries” was small.

The table following shows the racial composition of the working force in the selected States and in the country as a whole in 1900.

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