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INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.

The increase in the number of employees from the standpoint of recent immigration is the most significant feature of the recent expansion of the boot and shoe industry due to the necessity of recruiting operatives from the races of recent immigration. The table submitted below shows the increase in the number of persons employed in the boot and shoe manufacturing industry in the United States during the period 1880–1905, and the average number employed in the principal shoe manufacturing States during the year 1905.

TABLE 2.-The increase in the average number of wage-earners in the United States from

1880 to 1905 and the average number in selected States for 1905.

[This table is compiled from figures in Table 1, p. 229, Manufactures, 1905, United States Bureau of the

Census.]

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In collecting data relative emphasis was placed upon different sections of the country according to the geographical distribution of the industry as indicated by the Federal Census of Manufactures of 1905. The operating forces of the factories were studied more intensively in Massachusetts and the other New England States because of the greater concentration of the industry in that section, but detailed data was also obtained from the shoe factory operatives of Illinois and Missouri and other States of the Middle West in order to ascertain conditions and to have a basis of comparison with New England.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

A total of 710 households was studied in detail, the heads of which were boot or shoe manufacturing operatives. All of the households were located in the centers of the industry in New England. The table next presented shows the households studied, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 3.- Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS

SECURED.

The table below shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured. TABLE 4.Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Native-born of native father, White....
Native-born of foreign father, by race of father:

Canadian, French.

Irish...
Foreign-born:

Armenian
Canadian, French.
English..
Greek.
Hebrew
Irish...
Italian, North.
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Polish.
Syrian..

Grand total...
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born...
Total foreign-born.

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61 49 18

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46 141 569

229

6.2 15.3 84.7

228

564 3,129

557 3,072

6.3 15.3 84.7 263 1,665

The table next presented sets forth, by general nativity and race of head of household, the sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured.

TABLE 5. -Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

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Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born....
Total ioreign-born.

113

115

228

294 1, 407

557
3,072

49.6
47.2
54.2

50.4
52.8
45.8

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the persons for whom detailed information was secured in the households studied:

TABLE 6.-Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race of individual.

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Native-born of native father, White.
Native-born of foreign father, by race of
father:

Armenian..
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other,
English..
German.
Greek.
Hebrew.
Irish
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Polish.
Scotch,

Syrian.
Foreign-born:

Armenian.
Canadian, Fench.
Canadian, Other.
English,
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew..
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Polish..
Scotch.
Spanish.
Syrian...

Grand total.......
Total native-born of foreign father..
Total native-born
Total foreign-born...

123
139

3
42

5.4 7. 4

.6 1.8

.2

196 270 23 66 1

1 140 335 80

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73 131 20 24 1 1 42 163 46 18 125 95 97 2 1 24

98 172 34 22 155 189 151

2.2 .0 .0 5.1 8.9 1.8 1.1 8.0 9.8 7.8 .0 .0 1.7

4.3 7.7 1. 2 1.4 .1 .1 2. 5 9.6 2. 7 1.1 7.3 5. 6 5. 7 .1 .1 1.4

3. 9 9. 2 2. 2 1.1 7.7 7.8

6.8 (a)

248

2 1 56

32

1.5

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a Less than 0.05 per cent.

THE PREPARATION OF THE REPORT.

In preparing the data for publication, the tabulations have been prepared and are presented in three parts. Part I consists of a general survey of the industry and the statistical exhibits are made up of the data obtained from households and employees in all sections of the country. Parts II and III are general statistical surveys of the East and Middle West, respectively, based upon the information secured for employees. Part II also includes an intensive study of two representative boot and shoe manufacturing communities in the New England States. As in the case of the other industrial studies

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a The Middle West includes the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. The East includes the States east of the Ohio and north of the Potomac. 48296° —

-VOL 12-11-15

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the community reports have been introduced for the following rea-
sons: First, to secure a verification of the tendencies exhibited by the
more extended tabulations; second, to present material not included
in the statistical tables but bearing directly upon American life and
institutions, and third, to attempt to reach more definite conclusions
as to the economic effects of immigration. Stated in a summary form,
therefore, the divisions of the report as heretofore outlined are as
follows:
Part I.-General survey of the boot and shoe manufacturing industry.
Part II.—The boot and shoe manufacturing industry in the East.

(a) General survey.
(5) Community A-Representative boot and shoe manufacturing commu-

nity in New England.
(c) Community B-Representative boot and shoe manufacturing commu-

nity in New England. Part III.-General survey of the boot and shoe manufacturing industry in the

Middle West.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

Detailed information was secured for 19,946 operatives in all sections of the country. The following table and charts show, by sex, the number and percentage of employees of each race for whom information was obtained:

TABLE 7.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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Native-born of native father:
White..

5,635 3,687 Negro...

6
Native-born of foreign father, by country
of birth of father:

Australia...
Austria-Hungary.

68
Belgium..
Canada.

236 Denmark. England.

146 France.

28 Germany

1,137

709 Greece. Ireland.

758 Italy.

17
Mexico..
Netherlands.
Norway:
Portugal.
Roumapia.
Russia.
Scotland.

37
Spain..
Sweden,

16 Switzerland.

24 Wales..

Africa (country not specified)
Foreign-born, by race:

Albanian...
Armenian,
Bohemian and Moravian.

11
Bulgarian...
Canadian, French.

136 Canadian, Other..

189
a Less than 0.05 per cent.

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8 141 114

20 550 409

1 1.0 .8 .2 3.1 1.7

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