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PART I.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE BOOT AND SHOE

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

209

PART I.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING

INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Growth of the industry-Increase in the number of employees-Territory studied— Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-The preparation of the report-Employees for whom information was secured-Text Tables 1 to 8 and General Tables 1 to 3].

GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY.

The growth in the boot and shoe manufacturing industry during recent years may be understood from the fact that the total amount of capital invested in 1880 was only $42,994,028, as contrasted with a capital commitment of $122,526,093 in 1905, and from the additional fact that the value of the annual output of the industry in 1880 was only $166,050,354, as compared with a yearly production to the value of $320,107,458 in 1905. The growth of the industry in the country as a whole during the period 1880-1905, and its status in 1905 in the principal boot and shoe manufacturing States is shown in the table below.

TABLE 1.-The growth of the boot and shoe industry in the United States 1880 to 1905 and the status of selected States for 1905.

[Compiled from Table 1, p. 229, and Table 16, pp. 246-253, in Part III, Manufactures, 1905, United States Bureau of the Census.]

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INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.

The increase in the number of employees from the standpoint of recent immigration is the most significant feature of the recent expansion of the boot and shoe industry due to the necessity of recruiting operatives from the races of recent immigration. The table submitted below shows the increase in the number of persons employed in the boot and shoe manufacturing industry in the United States during the period 1880-1905, and the average number employed in the principal shoe manufacturing States during the year 1905.

TABLE 2.-The increase in the average number of wage-earners in the United States from 1880 to 1905 and the average number in selected States for 1905.

[This table is compiled from figures in Table 1, p. 229, Manufactures, 1905, United States Bureau of the Census.]

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In collecting data relative emphasis was placed upon different sections of the country according to the geographical distribution of the industry as indicated by the Federal Census of Manufactures of 1905. The operating forces of the factories were studied more intensively in Massachusetts and the other New England States because of the greater concentration of the industry in that section, but detailed data was also obtained from the shoe factory operatives of Illinois and Missouri and other States of the Middle West in order to ascertain conditions and to have a basis of comparison with New England.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

A total of 710 households was studied in detail, the heads of which were boot or shoe manufacturing operatives. All of the households were located in the centers of the industry in New England. The table next presented shows the households studied, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 3.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The table below shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured.

TABLE 4.-Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Total native-born of foreign father.
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Total foreign-born.

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569

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335

9.1

329

9.1

51

1.4

50

1.4

178

4.8

178

4.9

288

7.8

273

7.5

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3,129

3,072

84.7

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