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IMMIGRANTS IN INDUSTRIES.

BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING.

This report, which was prepared under the direction of the Commission by W. Jett Lauck, superintendent of agents, forms part of the general report of the Immigration Commission on immigrants in industries.

BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING.

CONTENTS.

PART I. GENERAL SURVEY OF THE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING

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History of immigration....

225

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households.............

227

Racial classification of employees at the present time.

234

CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied..
Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United
States..

General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied.
General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied..
Comparison of occupations of the first and second generations...

Weekly earnings..

241

244

246

247

248

249

Relation between period of residence and earning ability
Annual earnings of male heads of families studied..

255

258

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual family income..

260

261

262

Wives at work..

263

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers...

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Age classification of employees and members of their households.

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PART II.-THE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE EAST.

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

GENERAL SURVEY.

Employees for whom information was secured....

CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

Representative boot and shoe manufacturing communities..

History of immigration....

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees..
Racial classification of employees at the present time...

Page.

325

326

327

327

329

CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United
States.

333

Weekly earnings.

334

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.

CHAPTER IV.-Salient characteristics:

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Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.
Employees for whom information was secured...

362

365

CHAPTER VII.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration....

367

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households..

368

Racial classification of employees at the present time.

371

CHAPTER VIII.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied.
Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United
States..

373

376

General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied.
General occupation of females at the present time, in the households studied.
Comparison of occupations of the first and second generations..
Occupations entered in the boot and shoe industry.

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Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
Annual earnings of male heads of families studied..

384

384

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

386

Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual family income...

387

388

Wives at work....

389

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers...

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Visits abroad....

417

420

428

Age classification of employees and members of their households.

429

Charity..

433

CHAPTER XII.-General progress and assimilation:

Ownership of homes..

435

School attendance..

436

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Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.... CHAPTER XIV.-Racial displacements:

446

History of immigration..

449

Period of residence in the United States of members of immigrant households studied...

CHAPTER XV.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied..
General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied..
General occupation of females at the present time in the households studied.
Comparison of occupations of the first and second generations....
Occupations entered in the industry....

Annual earnings of male heads of families studied...

452

455

458

459

460

460

461

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied..
Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual family income..

463

463

464

Wives at work..

466

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

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PART III. THE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE MIDDLE WEST.

CHAPTER I. Introduction:

Page.

CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

Employees for whom information was secured..

497

History of immigration to the boot and shoe manufacturing establishments of St. Louis..

499

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees..
Racial classification of employees at the present time....

500

501

CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United
States..

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