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for acute intoxications, but no cases were found where the eyes had been seriously affected, as shown by mistiness or cloudiness of vision. A few acute cases occurred in the use of varnish and volatile paint re
The outstanding complaints and defects found in painters were poor appetite, indigestion, constipation, pyorrhoea and bad teeth, frequent coughs and colds (but with few physical signs in the chest), nocturnal polyuria, high blood pressure, hardened arteries, pallor of the face but with normal haemoglobin readings, headaches and neuralgia.
2. Furniture Finishers.
Twenty-four furniture factories were visited in Ontario towns and 195 finishers were examined. The majority were between 20 and 40 years of age; 18 per cent were over 40 and 8 per cent over 50 years of age. Thirty-two per cent had been over 20 years at the trade.
Seventy per cent of the men examined showed no signs and had no complaint to make of the substances with which they worked. Thirty per cent had complaints or showed defects which might be due to the nature of their work. But only 10 per cent of all the finishers had enough associated symptoms or signs to be considered affected to any extent by these volatile bodies used, and of these, 19 men, 6 were mild cases.
Over 40 men who used the spray painting machine were included in the 195. Fiftyeight per cent of these men had complaints to make of the work, but the complaints and the physical defects found were milder than for finishers in general. Of the 10 per cent referred to above as more seriously affected, over half were spray painters.
Few complaints could be referred to any one special substance used; general fumes must be given as the cause. This differs very much from the findings in painters and decorators. Again, no eye symptoms from methylated spirits were found. Owing to the similarity of the effects of different volatile substances, the exposure to combined fumes in the finishing rooms, and the absence or scarcity of physical findings to corroborate the subjective symptoms, no definite diagnosis of acute or chronic poisoning from any one substance could be made.
But the finding of suggestive symptoms in work where poisonous substances were known to be used, called for precautions to be taken and every possible means used for keeping the concentration of such poisons as low as possible.
The outstanding complaints and defects noted were poor morning appetite, indigestion, constipation (the teeth and gums were very healthy as compared with the painters), throat irritation and expectoration, pallor of face with normal haemoglobin; headaches, dizziness and change in weight.
3. Spray Painting.
With further reference to the spray painters, a report of the hazard to the health from the use of lead paint in spray machines was published in "The Journal of Industrial Hygiene," Vol. III, No. 12. Further experiments were carried out to complete the investigation by determining the hazards to the health in outdoor spray painting. The risk was found to be very small where plain surfaces were being painted, provided the operator took advantage of the prevailing air currents. But where the surface to be painted had numerous angles and jutting parts (e. g., in painting the under structure of railway cars) there was danger from the backspray and air currents even when a long handle was provided for the spray nozzle.
Coincident with this investigation some experiments have been conducted with mice to study the effects of exposure to volatile substances in concentrations lower than that which produces acute symptoms and the effect of repeated exposures to concentrations which produce acute poisoning, but from which the animal was removed as soon as any signs were noticed. These conditions more nearly approach those met with among house painters and furniture finishers. So far the experiments point to a fairly high degree of poisoning from such conditions of high concentration and exposure. They have not been completed yet, however. 4. Storage Batteries.
There are three plants in Ontario where storage batteries are made. The risks in this trade are lead poisoning, poisoning from arseniuretted hydrogen and acid fumes. The two latter were not found. Fifty-five men were examined. There were three cases of previous lead poisoning (one a sawyer of lead plates, one engaged in cleaning up the room in which lead paste was used, and one assembling plates). Two men showed lead absorption by the blue line on their gums, but had no symptoms. Two others had suggestive symptoms of lead absorption, but no corroborating physical signs. Analysis of the air were made in all branches of the work to find out how much lead was being breathed in by the workmen. Near the saws and the grinders or buffers dangerous amounts were found.
Recommendations for the prevention of leod poisoning in the individual plants have been forwarded.
5. Paint Manufacturing Plants.
Investigation among this group of workers is not yet complete.
6. Acute Benzol Poisoning.
A case of acute benzol poisoning was studied. A large tank was being painted with a coal tar paint diluted with benzol. One painter died and one recovered. The autopsy showed that there was no tendency for the blood to coagulate, no pathological condition and death was caused by asphyxia. The one who recovered was normal when
examined. This case was interesting, for Floor Surfacing Contractor
by proper precautions and the testing of the concentration of fumes by rabbits, which are very sensitive to the fumes, the work was finished without trouble. Estimations of the concentration of benzol in the air under the new conditions showed a nontoxic amount.
Report of the miners' phthisis investigation has been completed. During_the_past year this work was extended to other large mines. The dust counts showed similar conditions to be existing. The cases of incipient miners' phthisis discovered have been followed up and are all engaged in other occupations in the mining camps.
Desirable Future Development
One outstanding feature in the reports of investigations submitted to date has been the part played by "history of exposure" and "symptoms" in the diagnosis, and the frequent absence of "physical signs" which can be detected by any known means. the purpose of keeping the employee in health accurate knowledge of exposure to poisoning with the presence of two or three major symptoms might justify the physician in recommending a temporary change of job. For purposes of compensation, however, and for a determination of the influence of daily exposure to minute doses of poisonous substances on the incidence and severity of intercurrent disease, more accurate knowledge is necessary. This can not be obtained until provision is made for their study in special industrial or general medical clinics. It is hoped that some move in this direction may be made here soon. Acknowledgment is gladly made of the repeated assistance which the division has received from other divisions in the Board of Health and from district officers. The help of physicians, employees' representatives and certain employers has been no small factor in accomplishing what it has been possible to do.
J.G. CUNNINGHAM, M. D.,
THE DANGER OF RUST
He is short of stature. His hair is gray and he wears a little gray beard. In spite of his ninety years he is vigorous and active. His name is Gustav Eiffel.
Thirty-three years ago he finished the tower in Paris which bears his name, and he looked with satisfaction on the 7,000 tons of iron which he had piled to a height of 985 feet.
When asked recently if the Eiffel Tower would ever collapse, M. Eiffel said: "No, it will never fall; it has never dropped even the smallest fraction of an inch; it stands today just as it was built. The only danger is from rust, and you will never find a speck of it on the framework; we are continually going over it."
There, my friend, is a little sermon to which all of us can give heed in these days in which we live.-Indiana Booster.
There's big money in surfacing new floors and re-surfacing old ones with the "American Universal" electrically driven machine. If there's any doubt in your mind about this, just ask Mr. Smith.
He makes $35.00 a day in this business and he tells us that he's always busy. Mr. Smith didn't like the idea of working for day wages, and he wanted to get into something that would not only pay him big money, but keep him busy every month during the year. He sure hit it right when he took up floor surfacing "The American Universal Way".
Read his letter. It sure sounds good to
The "American Universal" which I bought more than a year ago has paid for itself twenty-five to thirty times. I'm very well pleased with it. "It has advanced my wages about four times over what I used to make. I now make $35.00 to $45.00 a dayand some days more.
With my "American Universal" I make a practice of doing perfect work, the best on the market. E. A. Smith. (Signed)
It only costs a small sum to get into this business, and it requires absolutely no experience to turn out a first class job with this "American Universal" floor surfacing machine... The fact that it does the work of six men explains why fellows like Smith make $35.00 to $50.00 a day.
If you want to investigate the matter, (and no doubt you do) you can turn to page 31 of this issue. On this page, the American Floor Surfacing Machine Co., (534 South St. Clair Street, Toledo, Ohio) are advertising the "American Universal" electrically driven machine.
MEMBERS TAKE NOTICE
Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company Unfair
Painters' District Council No. 9, of New York City, and the New York State Conference of Painters have tried every hhonorable means to induce this company to be fair with organized labor, but to no avail.
The Company is on their "We Don't Patronize" list, because it prefers cheap labor. AND THEY DON'T WANT YOUR PATRONAGE.
The Council and Conference has the endorsement of the State Federation of Labor and Central Trades and Labor Council of New York.
Assist your New York Brothers by refusing to purchase from the Atlantic and Pacific Tea Co., until such time as they are willing to Ideal fair with organized labor.
PRACTICAL PASTE PERFECTED BY HURON MILLING CO.
An interesting new product is being advertised this month in our magazine for the first time. The Huron Milling Company, a very well known firm with large mills at Harbor Beach, Mich., and offices in New York, Chicago and Boston, has found through fifty years' experience in wheat flour milling that expert paperhangers have long wanted the old fashioned wheat flour paste, but in the convenient form of cold water paste powder.
The Huron Milling Company announces that they have perfected such a product and that their Red Stave Wheat Paste has all the good points of the old fashioned
It is very important that names and addresses of newly elected officers be returned immediately to this office on the official cards which have been furnished in order that the Directory of Secretaries and Business Agents can be printed and ready for distribution by March 1.
LOCAL UNIONS IN ARREARS
Members Watch Your Benefits-The National Law Provides (see Section 15 of the Constitution) That With Locals Two Months in Arrears, the Members of Such Locals Shall Be Deprived of Their Benefits. The Only Exceptions Are When the Local Unions Are on Strike or Locked Out or When for Equally Sufficient Reasons an Extension of Time Is Given to Make Payments.
Unions two months in arrears on closing accounts on December 31, 1923, follow:
206, 220, 264, 351, 353, 395, 439, 442, 445, 482, 484, 657, 662, 668, 683, 735, 760, 777, 785, 793, 815, 853, 879, 892, 904, 919, 960, 1021, 1055, 1076, 1092, 1113, 1118, 1121, 1127, 1131, 1209, 1241, 1251, 1267, 1339, 1343.
Bro. J. F. Boyd, L. U. 913, San Mateo, Cal. Bro. E. M. Bonham, L. U. 320, Aberdeen, S. D.
Bro. W. C. Phillips, L. U. 720, Butte, Mont. Bro. N. M. Gruber, L. U. 360, Butler, Pa. Bro. Frank Koonmen, L. U. 12, Troy, N. Y. Bro. Charles Marx, L. U. 13, Cincinnati, O. Bro. Hans Hansen, L. U. 194, Chicago, Ill. Bro. August Frederickson, L. U. 194, Chicago, Ill.
. Bro. G. C. Drake, L. U. 194, Chicago, Ill. Bro. Emanuel Peterson, L. U. 806, Miami, Fla.
Bro. Carl Strasdin, L. U. 892, New York, N. Y.
Bro. J. A. Johnson, L. U. 961, San Francisco, Cal.
Bro. S. H. Books, L. U. 372, Chillicothe, O. Bro. Charles Miller, L. U. 6, Pittsburgh, Pa. Bro. Frank Lopez, L. U. 16, Chicago, Ill. Bro. James H. Caldwell, L. U. 31, Syracuse, N. Y.
Bro. Samuel Meyers, L. U. 46, St. Louis, Mo. Bro. Albert B. Henry, L. U. 47, Indianapolis, Ind.
Bro. William Bowman, L. U. 77, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Bro. Ellsworth Kirk, L. U. 122, Newburgh, N. Y.
Bro. Joseph Honey, L. U. 147, Chicago, Ill. Bro. Thomas H. Heath, L. U. 186, Minneapolis, Minn.
Bro. Paul F. Hendricks, L. U. 262, Napa, Cal.
Bro. Bernard Bard, L. U. 499, New York, N. Y.
Bro. Thomas Raggett, L. U. 574, Taunton, Mass.
Bro. Everett Tinker, L. U. 577, Cambridge, Mass.
Bro. Fred Holmstrom, L. U. 892, New York, N. Y.
Bro. Wilbur B. Shepherd, L. U. 993, Pawhuska, Okla.
Bro. Bever Solen, L. U. 1086, Minneapolis, Minn.
Bro. Oscar Durant, L. U. 29, Galesburg, Ill. Bro. Gerald O'Brien, L. U. 44, Lawrence, Mass.
Bro. Herman Lemm, L. U. 101, Chicago, Ill. Bro. Ernest Heiligenthal, L. U. 104, Lake Geneva, Wis.
Bro. Louis Haberstock, L. U. 115, St. Louis, Mo.
Bro. Col. Hillinbrand, L. U. 118, Louisville, Ky.
Bro. Oscar A. Daly, L. U. 147, Chicago, Ill. Bro. Benjamin Ward, L. U. 242, Orange, N. J.
Bro. Courtney Milan, L. U. 513, St. Louis, Mo.
Bro. William Flanagan, L. U. 513, St. Louis, Mo.
Bro. John H. Kearny, L. U. 588, Newark, N. J.
Bro. Leonard DiVirgilio, L. U. 624, Chicago, Ill.
Bro. Harry McLennan, L. U. 829, New York, N. Y.
Bro. John T. Moore, L. U. 1034, Eureka, Cal. Bro. P. L. Dunbar, L. U. 1042, Manchester, N. H.
Bro. David Aldrich, L. U. 2, North Adams, Mass.
Bro. George Megrady, L. U. 9, Kansas City, Mo.
Bro. Francis Lewellyn, L. U. 37, Detroit, Mich.
Bro. H. G. Wharton, L. U. 79, Denver, Colo. Bro. Herman Lemm, L. U. 101, Chicago, Ill. Bro. J. F. Crippen, L. U. 109, Omaha, Neb. Bro. Frank Cummings, L. U. 125, Litchfield, Ill.
Bro. Clayton H. Davis, L. U. 198, Uniontown, Pa.
Bro. Michael F. Dunn, L. U. 265, Chicago, Ill. Bro. Harry Horn, L. U. 345, Philadelphia, Pa.
Bro. John Casey, L. U. 553, Cincinnati, O. Bro. E. M. Gaughan, L. U. 872, Pana, Ill. Bro. Jake Bender, L. U. 1043, Washington, Ind.
Bro. Newton Hagerman, L. U. 91, Wheeling, W. Va.
Bro. Arthur Waring, L. U. 1058, Alexandria, Va.
Bro. Arthur R. Briggs, L. U. 183, Clinton, Ia. Bro. Thomas Reap, L. U. 218, Taylor, Pa. Bro. Harvey Bell, L. U. 37, Detroit, Mich. Bro. B. P. Zane, L. U. 37, Detroit, Mich. Bro. Cornelius J. Harrington, L. U. 75, Fall River, Mass.
Bro. Morris Puvetkin, L. U. 11, Boston. Mass.
Bro. A. M. Kenseth, L. U. 11, Boston, Mass. Bro. James Flannigan, L. U. 150, Rochester N. Y.
Bro. William E. Schuckert, L. U. 818, Suffern, N. Y.
Bro. M. N. Perry, L. U. 1, Baltimore, Md. Bro. V. J. Wallisch, L. U. 6, Pittsburgh, Pa. Bro. John Colway, L. U. 31, Syracuse, N. Y. Bro. James Gammon, L. U. 61, St. Paul, Minn.
Bro. William Anderson, L. U. 79, Denver, Colo.
Bro. Peter Sausmer, L. U, 112, Buffalo, N. Y. Bro. George Smeatham, L. U. 191, Chicago, Ill.
Bro. John P. Muller, L. U. 192, Stamford, Conn.
Bro. Albert Jacobi, L. U. 242, Orange, N. J. Bro. G. C. Yeaman, L. U. 341, St. Louis, Mo. Bro. H. L. Harvey, L. U. 437, Knoxville, Tenn.
Bro. Hamilton H. Merritt, L. U. 452, West Palm Beach, Fla.