Quality Assurance in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

Pirmais vāks
Oxford University Press, 2007. gada 29. marts - 320 lappuses
Analytical chemical results touch everyones lives can we eat the food? do I have a disease? did the defendant leave his DNA at the crime scene? should I invest in that gold mine? When a chemist measures something how do we know that the result is appropriate? What is fit for purpose in the context of analytical chemistry? Many manufacturing and service companies have embraced traditional statistical approaches to quality assurance, and these have been adopted by analytical chemistry laboratories. However the right chemical answer is never known, so there is not a direct parallel with the manufacture of ball bearings which can be measured and assessed. The customer of the analytical services relies on the quality assurance and quality control procedures adopted by the laboratory. It is the totality of the QA effort, perhaps first brought together in this text, that gives the customer confidence in the result. QA in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory takes the reader through all aspects of QA, from the statistical basics and quality control tools to becoming accredited to international standards. The latest understanding of concepts such as measurement uncertainty and metrological traceability are explained for a working chemist or her client. How to design experiments to optimize an analytical process is included, together with the necessary statistics to analyze the results. All numerical manipulation and examples are given as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets that can be implemented on any personal computer. Different kinds of interlaboratory studies are explained, and how a laboratory is judged in proficiency testing schemes is described. Accreditation to ISO 17025 or OECD GLP is nearly obligatory for laboratories of any pretension to quality. Here the reader will find an introduction to the requirements and philosophy of accreditation. Whether completing a degree course in chemistry or working in a busy analytical laboratory, this book is a single source for an introduction into quality assurance.

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Saturs

1 Introduction to Quality in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
3
2 Statistics for the Quality Control Laboratory
23
3 Modeling and Optimizing Analytical Methods
66
4 Quality Control Tools
105
5 Interlaboratory Studies
136
6 Measurement Uncertainty
161
7 Metrological Traceability
203
8 Method Validation
227
9 Accreditation
262
Bringing It All Together
286
Glossary of Acronyms Terms and Abbreviations
295
Index
297
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Populāri fragmenti

12. lappuse - The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of (1/683) watt per steradian.
213. lappuse - The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12. (When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles...
12. lappuse - The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium- 133 atom.
213. lappuse - The second is the duration of 9, 192, 631, 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium- 133 atom (13th CGPM, 1967).
12. lappuse - The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.
13. lappuse - Unit Symbol Formula frequency (of a periodic phenomenon) force pressure, stress energy, work, quantity of heat power, radiant flux quantity of electricity, electric charge electric potential, potential difference, electromotive force electric capacitance electric resistance electric conductance magnetic flux magnetic flux density inductance Celsius temperature hertz newton pascal joule watt coulomb volt farad ohm Siemens weber tesla henry degree Celsius* Hz N Pa J W C V F a s Wb T H «c N/m2 Nm J/»...
26. lappuse - Reproducibility (of results of measurements): closeness of agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand, where the measurements are carried out under changed conditions...
206. lappuse - Metrology3 and are accepted by national measurement laboratories around the world: traceability: property of the result of a measurement or the value of a standard whereby it can be related to stated references, usually through national or international standards, through an unbroken chain of comparisons all having stated uncertainties.
8. lappuse - TLD's and TLD readers in use at program activities. Precision TLD's are pre-exposed to exact amounts of radiation by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, formerly the National Bureau of Standards, and provided to program activities for reading.

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