Searching for Partners: Regional Organizations and Peace Operations
Indeed, peacekeeping emerged in the post-Cold War period as the "most prominent U.N. activity." The organization was freed of the shackles placed upon it by superpower rivalry that heretofore had rendered U.N. machinery inoperative in coping with local crises and was suddenly becoming "the center of international efforts to deal with unresolved problems of the past decades as well as the array of present and future issues." Between 1988 and 1993, more than a dozen new peacekeeping operations were launched, involving more than 70,000 military and civilian personnel for field operations, at an annual cost to the United Nations in excess of $3 billion Why this sudden explosion of U.N. peacekeeping activity? Relaxation of Cold War restraints was partially responsible, but it coincided with a sea change in attitudes toward the nation-state. "The norms governing intervention have evolved," as Barry B Blechman put it. Governments have come under increasing scrutiny and criticism for failure to adhere to a growing body of international standards in areas formerly considered purely internal matters, for instance, human rights and political freedom.
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Abkhazia African Agenda agreement arrangements ASEAN Asia Asian Assembly authority Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia capabilities cease-fire Chapter VIII CIS peacekeeping civilian coalition Cold War collective security command Commonwealth of Independent concerned conflict prevention consensus cooperation coordination countries created defense deployed DPKO ECOMOG economic ECOWAS efforts established Europe European Union former fund Georgia human rights humanitarian assistance implementation initiatives Inspectors institutions international peace intervention involved major mandate meeting membership missions Moldova monitoring Moscow multinational Nations and regional NATO observers OSCE Ossetian participation peace and security peace enforcement peace operations peace-related activities peacekeeping force peacekeeping operations planning political potential preventive diplomacy problems programme regional organizations responsibility role Russian Federation Rwanda Secretariat Secretary-General Security Council Serb situation South Ossetia Soviet Tajikistan Treaty troops Turkmenistan U.N. Charter U.N. peacekeeping U.S. Government United Nations UNOMIG UNPROFOR USSR Uzbekistan
5. lappuse - Under the Charter, the Security Council has and will continue to have primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security, but regional action as a matter of decentralization, delegation, and cooperation with the United Nations efforts could not only lighten the burden of the Council but also contribute to a deeper sense of participation, consensus and democratization in international affairs.
9. lappuse - The Organization of American States, in order to put Into practice the principles on which it is founded and to fulfill its regional obligations under the Charter of the United Nations, proclaims the following essential purposes: a) To strengthen the peace and security of the continent...
10. lappuse - Reaffirming the commitments to the Charter of the United Nations as subscribed to by our states, we declare our understanding that the CSCE is a regional arrangement in the sense of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations.
3. lappuse - The Security Council shall encourage the development of pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies either on the initiative of the states concerned or by reference from the Security Council.
8. lappuse - Congress hereby finds and declares (a) that marine resources, including animal and vegetable life and mineral wealth, constitute a far-reaching and largely untapped asset of immense potential significance to the United States; and (b) that it is in the national interest of the United States to...
14. lappuse - The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council...
137. lappuse - Note by the Secretary-General The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the...
143. lappuse - Nations entering into such arrangements or constituting such agencies shall make every effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes through regional arrangements or by such regional agencies before referring them to the Security Council.
5. lappuse - States outside the region to act supportively. And should the Security Council choose specifically to authorize a regional arrangement or organization to take the lead in addressing a crisis within its region, it could serve to lend the weight of the United Nations to the validity of the regional effort.