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ment of the roads under the park-road program and the development of new parks where there has been no road construction will undoubtedly greatly increase the revenues so that within two or three years there will be $700,000 or $800,000 coming in from automobile license fees alone.

The following table graphically illustrates the increase in the number of visitors and in revenues and of the proportionately small increase in the annual appropriations granted by Congress since the creation of the National Park Service:

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$180, 652. 30 $537, 366. 67 $1, 105, 083. 01 217, 330. 55 530, 680.00 1, 008, 318. 20 196, 678. 03 963, 105. 00 1, 058, 619.00 316, 877. 96 907, 070.76 789, 380.00 396, 928. 27 1, 058, 969, 16 2, 345, 867. 50 432, 964. 89 1, 433, 220.00 2, 488, 004. 50 513, 706. 36 | 1, 446, 520.00 1, 566, 080.00 663, 886. 32 1, 822, 730.00 1, 777, 950.00

1,877, 835. 00 1, 753, 250.00

1 After July 1, 1918, all revenues except those of Hot Springs were covered into the miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury. Before that time they

were available for park development. After July 1, 1922, revenues from Hot Springs are covered into the Treasury and are no longer available for development of the park.

It will be interesting to note that if the revenues accruing to the United States amounting to $663,886.32 were deducted from the amount of the appropriation for the same period and there is further deducted about $400,000 expended in permanent improvements, the operating cost during the 1924 fiscal year amounted to a little more than $758,000, which is the cost to the people of maintaining their national parks. This is an infinitesimal amount when compared with the millions of dollars of travel money that was retained in this country and placed in wide circulation through the manifold attractions of the national parks.

SEVENTH NATIONAL PARK CONFERENCE

Each year I am more and more impressed with the necessity of personal contact between field representatives and this office, and the importance of holding annual conferences of superintendents and general officers of the service. The cost of these conferences is more than justified by the results obtained. In a general round-table conference all matters of general policy can be discussed and explained and all questions pertaining to the individual parks thoroughly decided. During such discussions the new superintendents or those in charge of the smaller and less-visited parks can learn much from the more experienced officers, and the Washington officials can impress upon the superintendents the department's point of view on policy matters and the reasons therefor, while at the same time themselves getting the field viewpoint, which is invaluable in running the Washington end of a field service. The result is a smoothly running organization, and particularly the elimination of a great deal of otherwise necessary correspondence and sometimes costly delays.

With your approval I called the Seventh Conference of National Park Superintendents in Yellowstone National Park October 22–28,

1923. This was primarily attended by service officials, although several outsiders who could furnish valuable advice were invited. Through your cooperation, Col. James W. Steese, president of the board of Alaska Road Commissioners, was able to stop at the conference on his way to Alaska from Washington, and contributed much interesting information on Alaskan affairs. The first three days of the conference were devoted to round-table discussions of important problems, while the remaining three full days were devoted to inspections of Yellowstone Park activities, followed by several hours general discussion on the closing day. The proceedings of the conference, taken down stenographically, have proven an invaluable record for future reference for both the field and Washington offices.

HEAVY DEMAND FOR PARK LITERATURE

The demand for the Rules and Regulations pamphlets of the national parks giving complete information regarding the parks, how to reach them, and approved charges for all tourist accommodations therein, has exceeded that of previous years and the editions printed have fallen far short of supplying this demand. All travel bureaus, automobile clubs, chambers of commerce, and other interested organizations, to whom we had formerly sent a supply of the pamphlets for redistribution to travelers, were notified at the beginning of this season that this practice would have to be discontinued, but all such agencies were supplied with six copies of each of the various pamphlets for desk use in answering questions from inquirers.

This year the following editions of the Rules and Regulations were printed: Crater Lake National Park, 30,000; Glacier National Park, 30,000; Grand Canyon National Park, 35,000; Hot Springs National Park, 9,500; Sequoia and General Grant National Parks, 25,000; Rocky Mountain National Park, 30,000; Mount Rainier National Park, 25,000; Mesa Verde National Park, 20,000; Wind Cave National Park, 15,000; Yellowstone National Park, 50,000; _and Yosemite National Park, 50,000. In addition the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. donated $1,329.39 for 40,000 additional copies of the Yellowstone Rules and Regulations, the Medford (Oregon) Chamber of Commerce donated $177.19 for 5,000 additional copies of the Rules and Regulations, Crater Lake National Park, and the Hot Springs Chamber of Commerce donated $100 toward the edition of the Hot Springs Rules and Regulations. The Santa Fe Railroad Co. printed and donated the entire edition of the Summer Trips Grand Canyon National Park pamphlet, and the Hawaii Tourist Bureau reprinted and donated an edition of the Hawaii National Park Rules and Regulations. This valuable assistance has made it possible to more fully meet the demand for park literature.

The Manual for Railroad Visitors, Yellowstone National Park, was again issued, 50,100 copies being printed. The Manual for Motorists, Yellowstone National Park, was reissued in different form, being combined with the Motorists Guide map and an edition of 35,000 copies printed. The Motorists Guide for Yosemite National Park was reissued in new form and an edition of 40,000 copies printed. It, together with the Yellowstone Motorists Guide, is the

finest map publication so far issued. The regular Motorists Guide for Rocky Mountain, Glacier, Mount Rainier, Crater Lake, Sequoia, and General Grant Parks were printed. A map guide of the Petrified Forest National Monument was also issued for the first time.

A new mimeograph circular regarding Zion National Park, combining with it descriptive information regarding other scenic points in southwestern Utah and the North Rim of the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, was also issued. We have no printed information or mimeograph circulars for Lafayette, Lassen Volcanic, or Platt National Parks, although numerous requests for literature concerning these parks are received annually. For several years we have been holding the manuscripts of the Flora of Glacier National Park, and Birds and Mammals of Mount Rainier National Park, each an important contribution to the literature on those parks and again their publication has had to be deferred on account of lack of funds. Neither has it been possible to issue a large edition of Glimpses of Our National Parks, as had been hoped.

INCREASED FUNDS FOR PRINTING

The greatly increased travel to the national parks resulting in tremendously increasing the demand for park literature was given personal consideration by Members of the House Appropriation Committee and the sum of $25,000 for printing and binding for the National Park Service was definitely set aside in the current act making appropriations for the Interior Department. This is several thousand dollars more than we have had for the past several years for this purpose. Members of the committee expressed approval of the issuance of a large edition of the booklet, Glimpses of Our National Parks, for wide distribution, and the increase was granted with the understanding that this pamphlet would be issued for free distribution. It is also planned to issue for the 1925 season printed pamphlets for Lafayette and Zion National Parks, and if possible to undertake the printing of one of the manuscripts that have been held for publication for some time.

SALE PUBLICATIONS POPULAR

Greatly increased sales of special pamphlets sold by the Superintendent of Documents are reported from the park superintendents to visitors in the parks. An increased sale of the topographic maps of the parks is also reported. Supplies of special pamphlets are shipped to the parks by the Superintendent of Documents and supplies of the topographic maps by the Geological Survey. Receipts from the sales are made direct to the Superintendent of Documents and the Geological Survey.

Press releases to the number of 94 were prepared and issued to newspapers, magazines, and organizations and persons especially interested in the national parks, and the publicity resulting therefrom has been very generous and helpful. These press releases included a series devoted to the 30 national monuments under the administration of this service and received much favorable comment. . A number of magazine articles were also prepared at the request of editors and published during the year.

VISUAL EDUCATIONAL WORK

The service again was enabled to offer interested clubs and organizations a lecture by Dr. C. D. Williamson, of Claremont, Calif. Doctor Williamson's lecture covered his “ Impressions of Some of Our National Parks” and was beautifully illustrated by lantern slides. Under a cooperative arrangement this lecture was made available without cost to organizations interested. It is estimated that in this way many thousands of persons were personally acquainted with the beauties of the national parks and Doctor Williamson's 18 years of acquaintance with western America, particularly the national parks which he described, gave his talk special interest. It covered Yellowstone, Glacier, Mount Rainier, Yosemite, Rocky Mountain, Mesa Verde, and Grand Canyon National Parks and the Petrified Forest National Monument. It is probable that a similar arrangement will be made this year so that this lecture may be given again during the coming winter season.

Mr. Stephen Johnson, a New York business man and ardent national park enthusiast, who annually takes extended trips into the West, and particularly the southwestern sections, gave a large number of lectures on the Zion and Grand Canyon National Parks, coming to Washington specially on one occasion to give his lecture free to the public in the Interior Department auditorium. Dr. Frank Castler, also of New York City, is another park enthusiast and has prepared remarkably beautiful slides from his own pictures, particularly of the high Sierra of California.

The national parks are being used as subjects more and more by professional lecturers. Mr. Arthur Pillsbury, of Yosemite, toured the East the past winter giving a very fine lecture illustrated by motion pictures of the wild flowers

of Yosemite Park folding and unfolding. Mr. F. P. Clatworthy of Estes Park, Colo., also made an extensive tour showing his natural color autochromes of many park scenes, particularly of Rocky Mountain Park. Mr. Branson DeCou, of East Orange, N. J., continued his popular lecture “ Dream Pictures of the National Parks” and Mr. Herbert W. Gleason, a professional lecturer of Boston, delivered a number of national park lectures, using colored lantern slides made from his own photographs._Mr. Gleason has devoted considerable time to Lafayette National Park, Me., during the past several years and that park has greatly benefited from his lectures.

A lecture bureau is maintained by the department of tours of the Chicago & North Western Railway and Union Pacific System and is prepared to furnish a lecturer, well informed and well equipped with good views of Yellowstone and Rocky Mountain National Parks, and with a small projector when needed, to interested clubs and organizations. This service is provided without cost and may be had at any time providing the date requested has not already been assigned.

THE YEAR IN THE PARKS

The following is a suminary of work accomplished in the parks and monuments during the past year. The summary is purposely made brief, as very comprehensive reports of the superintendents and custodians have been printed in full in Appendix C.

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, WYO.

From almost all points of view, except weather, the past year in Yellowstone National Park has been a normal one. The work of administration, maintenance, and operation proceeded normally, and with the usual efficiency.

Protection work was somewhat more difficult of successful performance because of the bad fire situation occasioned by the unusual lack of moisture and, as this is written, we fear considerable loss of animal life of the Yellowstone due to the poor condition of the range, especially the feeding areas utilized by elk and antelope in bad winters, the major portion of which lies outside the park. Elk and antelope herds are therefore facing a critical winter and it is possible that partial failure of the hay crop at the Buffalo Ranch, due to the drought of the spring and summer, may result in loss of buffalo, through starvation, or in danger of settlements north of the park, through escape of hungry bison from the control of their keepers and herders.

Dry summer burns up range and starts fires

May and June in the Yellowstone, normally wet months when grass and wild flowers grow rapidly and luxuriantly, this year were the driest in recorded history of the park. Records have been kept for nearly 30 years. Fortunately, rains in the early part of July came in time to save the range in the higher altitudes where snow remained through most of the dry period, but below the 6,000 foot contour the range never recovered from the scorching and stunting caused by lack of moisture in the growing period. So much for range conditions affecting animal life.

In the higher altitudes, during July and August, rains came so seldom that the forests became very dry and ready to burst into flame the moment a flash of lightning struck in them. In late August, several electric storms, unaccompanied by rain, started the much feared conflagrations and until well into September the rangers and road crews were occupied in fighting fires that were raging in remote sections of the park. The largest fire was on the Pitchstone Plateau and burned over 2,500 acres of timber. It was necessary to carry several miles, on pack horses and mules, not only food but also drinking water for the fire fighters. This is the only big fire the Yellowstone has suffered since 1919, which was one of the worst fire years in the history of the West.

Drought also affects road conditions Roads in this park for several years have been kept in remarkably good condition, although subjected to very heavy traffic. This year, however, they dried out early in the spring, and it was never possible to get them into entirely satisfactory condition. High winds during the summer swept away most of the top surfacing of fine gravel and lack of funds prevented initiation of regraveling operations on an adequate scale. So the end of the season sees the Yellowstone road system in distinctly poorer condition than it was a year ago. Heavier traffic, of course, must be credited with part of the deterioration of the highways.

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