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created May 2, 1924. It is a volcanic region, the most recent example of fissure eruption in the United States and, as its name signifies, closely resembles the surface of the moon as seen through a telescope. Nowhere else in the United States can so many volcanic features be found in such a small area. The monument contains approximately 39 square miles.
CHANGES IN BOUNDARY OF EXISTING NATIONAL MONUMENTS
The area of the Scotts Bluff National Monument, Nebraska, was reduced by Executive order of May 9, 1924, by the elimination of 160 acres. This quarter section was classed as irrigable land under the North Platte Federal Irrigation Project and was eliminated for that reason. The area of the monument is now 1,893.83 acres.
The area of the Pinnacles National Monument in California was increased by a third Presidential proclamation dated July 2, 1924. This added 320 acres, making the total area of the monument 2,980.26
In connection with plans to restore to the public domain certain areas of the Gran Quivira and Chaco Canyon National Monuments in New Mexico, the service was advised there was no statutory authority for the President to restore monument lands to entry, and in view of the opinion of the Attorney General dated March 29, 1921 (32 Opn. Atty. Gen. 488), it appears that such restoration is unauthorized. It therefore appears that national monuments are fixed reservations subject to restoration to the public domain only by legislative act.
THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON STATE PARKS
The State park movement, inaugurated by the Department of the Interior in 1921, is developing into one of the most popular and useful enterprises of the present generation. The First National Conference on State Parks was held in Des Moines, Iowa, and its results have been far-reaching. The second conference was held in the Bear Mountain Inn, Palisades Interstate Park, New York, in May, 1922; the third conference at Turkey Run State Park, Indiana, in May, 1923; while the fourth met at historic Gettysburg in Pennsylvania, last May. The increase in interest in State parks was marked, a larger number of States being represented at each meeting. Besides members of Congress and representatives of several Federal bureaus, the conference was attended by official delegates of the governors of the States, many well-known conservationists, members of State park and forest boards, conservation commissions, scientists, and educators. The governors of all but three States appointed delegates to the conference.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE THE THIRD CONFERENCE
As an illustration of what has been accomplished in this field since the third conference, Arkansas, Nebraska, and Missouri have created State parks; the Save-the-Redwoods League is working on a plan for a broad-gauge development of the State parks of California; the bill for the creation of the State park commission in Kentucky passed both houses of the legislature and was signed by the governor within 10 days from the date of its introduction; West Virginia and Texas have State park associations; Virginia is preparing to reintroduce in the next legislature her bill for a State Park commission and is planning a large meeting to crystallize sentiment in favor of the movement; several other States, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee, for instance, are taking an active interest in the beginning of State park work, while the governors of Nevada, Maine, and Mississippi have shown definite interest in the movement. In New York the legislature passed a bill for a bond issue of $15,- . 000,000 for increasing and improving State parks, and created a State council on parks. The voters of the State will have an opportunity at the November election to approve this bond issue, which will enable the State to make vast improvements in her State park system and will bring to the people greater opportunities for outdoor recreation.
That the States which have no State parks are realizing the value of these areas to their communities was clearly shown when Governor Neff, of Texas, devoted his entire address before the annual convention of the State Bankers Association to this question. Among other things he said :
Regardless of whether other States need parks or not, the time has come in Texas when some one, somewhere, in some manner or another, must start a movement looking to the creation and development of a system of State parks in order that our citizenship may grow along symmetrical lines rather than
led, due to the predominance of commercialism and industry. As a result of Governor Neff's preaching parks 42 beauty spots of every size and description have been set aside as State parks. This State that a short time ago had no parks is now taking its place as a leader in the State park movement.
THE PARK-TO-PARK HIGHWAY CONVENTION
On August 21 and 22, 1924, the annual convention of the National Park-to-Park Highway Association was held in Great Falls, Mont. I attended the sessions of the convention and had with me the superintendents of Yellowstone and Glacier National Parks.
Reports from all Western States through which the Park-to-Park Highway runs were read to the convention, and I was surprised and pleased to hear that an enormous amount of improvement work had been done on this highway during the past year.
It was very apparent that it will only be a question of a few years until this great interpark highway will be in splendid condition throughout its entire length. The suggestion was made that the Park-to-Park Highway is really a national institution at the present time, and is everywhere coming to be regarded as such. Federal funds are being expended on it in huge amounts, and the touring public from all sections of the Nation are using the interpark system in ever-increasing numbers, thus giving it a national status from more than one point of view.
BROOKLYN EAGLE NATIONAL PARK DEVELOPMENT TOUR
The National Park Service has come to look upon the Brooklyn Eagle National Park Tour as an annual event in national park
affairs; five of these tours having taken place during the last six years. During 1924 the Eagle's trip included a visit to the Grand Canyon, where the new drive to Tuba City was formally dedicated; to Yosemite National Park, where a tablet was placed on the Tioga Road to commemorate the acquisition and donation of this road to the Government by private individuals, and to the Mesa Verde National Park as well as to the Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, which has been proposed for acquisition for national park purposes. The superintendents of all these parks were enthusiastic over the visit of the Brooklyn Eagle party, as the “Eaglets” are true park friends and enthusiasts. I am hoping that these tours may become an annual event and that every park and monument in the system may eventually be visited.
DIRECTOR OF PARK SERVICE NOW CONNECTED WITH NATIONAL
CAPITAL PARK DEVELOPMENT
This past session of Congress saw another duty added to those involved in the directorship of the national parks, namely, membership in the new National Capital Park Commission having to do with the enlargement and development of the park system of the District of Columbia. The act approved June 6, `1924, in creating this new commission, prescribed that the Chief of Engineers of the Army, the Engineer Commissioner for the District, the Director of the National
Park Service, the Chief of the Forest Service, the Officer in Charge of Public Buildings and Grounds, and the Chairmen of the Senate and House Committees on the District of Columbia shall constitute its membership. The commission, or a majority thereof, is authorized and directed to acquire_such land as in its judgment is necessary and desirable in the District of Columbia and adjacent areas in Maryland and Virginia, within the limits of the appropriations made for such purposes, for suitable development of the national capital park, parkway, and playground system, the land to be acquired either by purchase or condemnation proceedings. An annual appropriation for park extension in and about Washington of not to exceed 1 cent for each inhabitant of continental United States is authorized, and this would now total something over $1,000,000.
The commission has had its organization meeting, and is already at work on the development of plans as contemplated by the organic legislation. This legislation has added some obligations which it will take additional time and effort to dispose of, but opens up opportunities for participating effectively in national park work of another sort than is involved in the administration and development of the national parks themselves; work that is intensely interesting and important since it involves the harmonious development of the National Capital, the seat of the American Government.
WORKING CONDITIONS OF PARK EMPLOYEES GREATLY IMPROVED
In recent years special attention has been given to the providing of such conveniences as would add to the comfort and contentment of park employees, especially toward supplying the married employees with suitable housing facilities, including light, heat, water, and sanitation. While we have not received funds from Congress for all the improvements we considered necessary, nevertheless a fine start has been made, notable improvements being in the headquarters village of Glacier at Belton and the new headquarters in Sequoia at Alder Creek. It will probably require several years to improve working conditions in all the national parks to which park employees are justly entitled.
Another step ahead has been the installation of medical and hospital services in some of the larger parks, such as Yosemite and Yellowstone, and more recently in the Grand Canyon. These services should be extended to some of the other parks where our employees are now without medical attention except for such as may be secured in cities or towns many miles distant.
The enactment of the reclassification act has made park work financially more attractive for our field forces, as well as for those in the Washington office, and with opportunities for advancement there is now inducement for many employees to make their park work their career. Improved working conditions also redound to the benefit of the Government in keeping competent, loyal, and welltrained men and women on the job. FIELD ACCOUNTING NECESSARY IN THE CONTROL OF PARK
UTILITIES The appropriation act for the Interior Department for the fiscal year 1923 carried an item of $6,000 for accounting services in verifying and checking the accounts of the public utilities operating in the national parks under strict Government control.
The same amount was appropriated for the fiscal year 1924. Mr. Francis P. Farquhar, of San Francisco, was appointed on October 10, 1922, as special field accountant on a temporary basis, and his appointment has been extended from time to time as need for his services arose. During the past two years extensive examinations have been made for the accounts and operations of the Yellowstone and Yosemite National Park utilities, and also of the Hot Springs, Glacier, Crater Lake, and Sequoia operations. In connection with the examination of these accounts this special accountant has been able to make suggestions for clearer definitions in the clauses of the contracts, referring to franchise payments to the Government, and considerable progress has been made toward establishing general uniformity of accounts among the operators. As a result of these examinations the way has been prepared for establishing certain principles of regulation that can be more fully developed in the future. The reports of the companies have been interpreted in the light of general business practice and the National Park Service is now in a better position to enforce requirements involving capital expenditures by the operators and to regulate rates which will inevitaby result in better service to the public. Any Federal organization having the control of public utilities, such as the National Park Service has, finds the employment of such supervisory accounting service indispensable. The granting of this small appropriation by Congress has more than paid for itself in many ways, entirely aside from the fact that the entire appropriation has been more than made up by the exaction of larger revenues from the operators which could be established as being rightfully due the United States.
GRAZING RAID ON CALIFORNIA PARK'S DEFEATED
This year's drought in California resulted in determined and persistent efforts by the State associations of cattle and sheepmen to open large areas of Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks to the grazing of both cattle and sheep. Complicated with this situation was the possibility of the spreading into the parks of the foot-andmouth disease, then rampant in various sections of the State. For a time this situation threatened to add greatly to the difficulties of normal park administration, with the incidental danger to the wild life in these parks. Due to your strong stand against opening up these parks to grazing, based first upon careful investigations made by Park Service officials, ably assisted by Forest Service officials and others, that indicated these efforts were being made upon illadvised and unfounded hysterical suppositions that a more serious grazing emergency existed than actually did, and, second, upon the principle that, conceding such an emergency, all private and national forest areas should first be utilized, the demand for opening the parks to grazing was denied.
THE PARKS IN WINTER
I have been endeavoring gradually to encourage a larger winter use of some of the parks, furthering their use for winter sports, and am gratified that last winter showed a record use for this purpose. Of course the Grand Canyon, Hawaii, Hot Springs, and Platt National Parks, because of their temperate climates, are accessible to visitors, and as popular in the winter as in the summer. People have begun to realize the opportunities afforded for enjoying winter sports under ideal conditions in superb scenic settings, and this realization has resulted in a satisfying increase in winter travel in the snow-covered parks.
Yosemite Valley, protected by its granite walls, has two distinct winter climates on opposite sides of the valley, so that snow and ice are available for skating, sleighing, tobogganing, and other winter sports on one side, while on the other the temperature is mild. Motoring and horseback riding can also be indulged in although to somewhat restricted extent. As the snowfall was unusually light last year, winter sports suffered somewhat in the valley.
The use of Rocky Mountain National Park for winter sports received a new impetus this past year from the organization of the Colorado Ski Club, to promote every form of outdoor sports and develop a definite winter season in the Rocky Mountain Park region. A Swiss ski instructor was employed by this club to give free instructions. The ninth annual outing of the Colorado Mountain Club took place in March, as did the first annual ski tournament of the newly organized Ski Club. Over 2,000 people visited the park during March either to participate in or witness these events. A new ski trail was constructed in the park through the combined efforts of the Colorado Mountain Club and the National Park Service.
The inauguration of the winter season in Mount Rainier National Park on December 15 of last year proved of tremendous popularity. For the first time in the history of the park the road to Longmire