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at the same time it should, as far as is consistent with this, give the largest space to

those writers which it - is most important for the student to study. Thus the comedies of the Restoration drama have an unquestioned rank, and a very positive historic significance; no history of the literature could properly slight them, but as they could not be read in any preparatory school, a manual of literature may safely pass them over with the briefest mention. Other books, again, may fall outside the limits by reason of their length and difficulty. In a text-book the intrinsic value or historic importance of Bacon's Novum Organum, or Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding, is by no means the single consideration, and in general we may profitably remember, to use Lowell's illustration, that many famous books, like certain Bills introduced into Congress, are merely "read by their titles and passed.” It is quite true that such a principle of exclusion may become dangerous if injudiciously applied ; but its danger is insignificant beside the danger of compelling the student to learn by rote set criticisms on books he is forbidden to read, or unable to understand. The true object of a text-book is not to give the student a fictitious acquaintance with the works he cannot read, but to bring him into direct and sympathetic contact with those books he should learn to read and appreciate. Moreover the omission of a large number of standard authors is rendered imperative by two unavoidable conditions, the limited time at the command of the student, and the limited space at the disposal of the writer. For this reason, if for

no other, the text-book of literature must follow a principle of its own. If it attempts to be a mere history of literature in miniature, authors' names, dates, and titles will remain a dry insoluble residuum from which all that is helpful and vital has departed. I have accordingly tried to conform to the conditions under which I have worked, and the purpose I have had in view. I have omitted, as formerly, many writers of unquestioned standing that I might place before the student a few great authors and their works with comparative vividness and fullness. In the attempt to carry out such a method troublesome questions of judgment perpetually present themselves, and if I seem to have omitted what should have been included, or included what should have been omitted, I can only remind my critics of the extreme difficulty of the task.

As the following works will be found useful in connection with the entire course of study they are given here in preference to inserting them in the study list of any special period.

GENERAL NOTES AND REFERENCES.

1. History.-Green's History of the English People will be found invaluable. Teachers are recommended to use this book freely, and to read, with the class, passages relating to literature or to social conditions. Knight's Pictorial History of England, Craik and Macfarlane's History of England.

2. Literature.-Stopford Brooke's Primer of English Literature. Taine's English Literature is a classic, and is brilliant and suggestive; it should be used, however, with due allowance for its author's peculiar theories and for critical shortcomings. Two recent works of importance, adapted for advanced students, are A Literary History of the English People, by J. J. Jusserand, and A History of English Poetry, by W. J. Courthope. Howitt's Homes and Haunts of the British Poets, Hutton's Literary Landmarks of London, Hare's Walks About London, Baedeker's Great Britain. For selections, Ward's English Poets, Chambers' Cyclopaedia of English Literature, Craik's Selections from English Prose, Cassell's Library of English Literature, edited by Morley. For reference, Rylands' Chronological Outlines of English Literature, Phillips' Popular Manual of English Literature, Adams' Dictionary of English Literature, Brewer's Reader's Handbook, Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Ploetz's Epitome of Universal History. For study lists, Welsh's English Masterpiece Course, Winchester's Short Courses of Reading, Hodgkin's Nineteenth Century Authors.

The reproduction of the map of Shakespeare's London has been obtained through the kindness of the Philadelphia Library, and I gladly take this opportunity of thanking those connected with that institution for this and many other courtesies.

H. S. P, GERMANTOWN, July 23, 1894.

PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION

In this edition critical and biographical sketches of Defoe, Swift, Goldsmith, Burke, and De Quincey have been added ; the history of the novel has been treated at greater length, and the sketch of Keats has been entirely rewritten.

H. S. P. GERMANTOWN, August 10, 1896.

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