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fully preserved, both in public and private libraries, and more frequently consulted by inventors and others.

As regards the style or workmanship in which the office reports are got up, I beg to suggest that a much smaller number than what is usu. ally printed would be preferable, in nearly every point of view, provided they were issued in respectable and enduring volumes. As permanent records, ten thousand copies, got up in a style creditable to the office and to the country, would be more valuable and do more service than ten times the number of the usual character. Instead of being rapidly consumed as waste-paper, they would be preserved in both private and pub. lic libraries. A complete set is not now to be had; and it is doubtful if a dozen sets are in existence; (there are none in the office of a date prior to 1845 ) This is believed to be chiefly, if not wholly, due to the infe. rior quality of the paper and printing—to the unattractive and unsubstantial dress in which they have been sent forth.

If inventions are fraught with consequences of the highest import to the well-being of society and honorable to the people that originate them, descriptions of them are worthy of preservation; and the more so since every new application of science and every addition to art has a lasting value. Tomes of the early printers are extant, and their pages appear fresh as when struck off, promising to outlive most of modern works. Few, if any, of our Patent Office reports will be found on book-shelves four centuries hence—their materials will have perished;* while there is no room to doubt that thousands of volumes printed in the fifteenth cen. tury will be consulted in the twenty-fifth. The annual reports of a bureai so intimately allied with mechanical progress as this is, ought, in some degree, to correspond with the present state of the arts connected with book making. Our ministers abroad have often felt ashamed when comparing some of our documents with those of foreign governments. Of the 500 copies of the Report of 1849, Part 1, which the Senate author. ized the undersigned to have printed, at a cost not exceeding fifty-five cents each, some were forwarded to American embassies abroad. The secretary of the legation at London, in acknowledging the receipt of a parcel, expressed his gratification at being furnished with a national doc. ument which he could exhibit without blushing.

It is the practice in nearly every public library to have its volumes bound in one uniform style; but with bound Patent Office reports this could not be done without cutting away the text, in consequence of the small portion of margin left by official binders; hence unbound are often preferred to bound copies. As the public binding is not calculated to be durable, it would be a decided improvement if the margin left by the binders were required to be not less than five-eighths or three-quarters of an inch in width.

10. International exchanges.—It is proper, in this place, to acknowledge the obligations of the office to N. Alexandre Vattemare, the well known founder of the system of international exchanges, for valuable contributions to its library, and for collections of foreign seeds.

The “Annales des Ponts et Chaussées,” a journal containing the transactions of the corps of topographical engineers in France, and « Annales des Mines,a journal devoted to mining and metallurgic operations, have been received from him entire; also, the continuation, for several years past, of the Brevets d'Invention,'' containing descriptions of patents granted in France, together with various works upon agricul. ture, chemistry, &c., received, through his agency, from individuals and scientific societies in France.

* A large edition of an English classic disappeared in thirty years, from the corroding action of chlorine used in bleaching the paper.

A series of specimens of Algerian soils and products, prepared by order of the Secretary of War of France, together with a collection of the agricultural productions of France, prepared by Mons. A. Vilmorin at the request of the Central Agricultural Society, have been received through Mons. Vattemare; but as it was understood that they were intended for the Department of the Interior, they have been handed over to the Secretary of that department, who has made mention of them in his late report accompanying the message of the President to Congress.

11. Examiners' reports. These have been omitted, partly on account of the pressure of business on the examiners' desks, but principally because complaints have been made of partiality in the selections of inventions noticed. To avoid this, all must be mentioned or none. These reports necessarily made invidious distinctions in regard to the relative importance and merits of devices patented. Such distinctions doubtless exist, but the duty of pointing them out does not attach to this office. They have been a fruitful source of complaint, of charges of partiality, and even of corruption; and although such charges are to be expected under any circumstances, it is inexpedient for the office to travel out of its path to invite them.

II.

FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL. The number of applications for patents received during the year ending December 31, 1851, is two thousand two hundred and fifty-eight; the number of caveats filed during the same period is seven hundred and sixty; being an increase of applications over last year of sixty-five, and of caveats one hundred and fifty-eight.

The number of patents issued during the year 1851 is eight hundred and sixty-nine, including twenty-five re-issues, three additional improvements, and ninety designs. Three disclaimers were entered during the year.

Within the year 1851, four hundred and thirty-eight patents have expired, a list of which is annexed, marked H. There were fifteen applications made during the year to extend patents, the terms of which were about to expire; which, with five pending applications at the close of last year, made twenty cases to be considered. Of these, nine were granted and eleven rejected. None have been extended by Congress during the year.

The receipts of the office for the year 1851, on account of applications for patents, caveats, additional improvements, re issnes, extensions, recording assignments, powers of attorney, &c., and for copies, amount to $95,738 61, as per statement marked A; being an increase over the receipts of last year of $8,811 56.

T'he expenses of the office for the year 1851 are as follows, viz: For salaries, $33,719 73; contingent expenses, $11,533 81; books for the library, $1,183 32; temporary clerks, $14,391 12; agricultural statistics, $4,937 84; refunding money paid by mistake, $186 77; compensation of librarian, $250; chief justice of the District of Columbia sitting on ap. peals from Commissioner of Patents, $100; on applications withdrawn, $20,614 34, as per statement marked B; leaving a balance to be carried to the credit of the Patent fund of $8,821 68, as per statement marked C.

On the 1st day of January, 1851, the amount of money in the treasury to the credit of the Patent fund was $15,331 27; to which add the excess of receipts over expenditures for the year, $8,821 68, leaves a balance in the treasury to the credit of the Patent fund, on the 1st day of January, 1852, of $24,152 95, as per statement D.

There were one hundred and sixtynine cases on the examiners' desks on the 1st of January, 1851; the number of applications received during the year, two thousand two hundred and fifty-eight; making the whole number of applications before the office during the year two thousand four hundred and twenty-seven. Of this number, one hundred and fifty-five remained unexamined on the 1st day of January, 1852.

The business of the office for the past year shows the examination of two thousand two hundred and seventy-two applications, resulting in the issue of eight hundred and sixty-nine patents and one thousand four hundred and three rejections and suspensions, as exhibited per stalement E.

A statement is also appended, showing the amount of fees received, applications and caveats filed, during each month of the year, marked F.

A.

Statement of receipts for patents, caveats, additional improvements, re.

cording assignments, déc., and for copies.

Amount received for patents, caveats, re-issues, and additional improvemenis...

$89,022 00 Amount received for recording assignments, &c., and for copies...

6,716 64

Total...

95,738 61

B.

Statement of expenditures and payments made from the Patent Fund

by the Commissioner of Patents, from January 1, 1851, to January 1, 1552, under the acts of Congress making provision for the expenses of the Patent Office, viz:

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For salaries.....

$33,719 73 For contingent expenses.

11,533 81 For books for library.

1,183 32 For temporary clerks..

14,391 12 For refunding money paid by mistake.

136 77 For withdrawals....

20,614 34 For compensation of librarian..

250 00 For compensation of district judge...

100 00 For collecting agricultural statistics, viz:

Salary paid agricultural clerk ($500 due for 1850). $2,500 00
Salary paid assistant, Mr. Fogg....

2:22 15
Amount paid for copying report...

501 69 Amount paid for seeds, stationery, &c...

1,714 01

4,937 85

86,916 94

In the above sum of $86,916 94, which shows an increased expenditure for the year 1851 over that of 1850 and former years, is embracedThe salaries of two principal and two assistant examiners,

authorized at the last session of Congress, at the rate of
$8,000 per annum for nine months. ..

•. $6,0 0 00 The excess of expenditure for the agricultural desk over last year ...

1,078 49 Besides these extraordinary expenditures, the withdrawals of

applications have been unusually large, exceeding the amount of those of last year—which was greater than any preceding year—the sum of....

$2,601 01

9,679 50

This sum of $9,679 50 deducted from the whole expenditure, $86,916 93, and the ordinary expenses of the office for the year 1851 is shown to be only $77,237 43–$2,863 52 less as compared with the expenses of last year.

C.

Statement of receipts and expenditures of the Patent Office for the

year 1851.

Amount received from all sources.
Amount of expenditures of all kinds.......

$95,738 61

S6,916 93

Amount carried to credit of Patent fund for 1851.....

8,821 68

D.

Patent Fund, January 1, 1851.

Amount of fund January 1, 1851. ...
Amount carried to Patent fund for 1851..

$15,331 27

8,221 68

Amount remaining in the treasury to the credit of the

Patent fund January 1, 1852..

24,152 95

E.

Statement of applications on hand January 1, 1851, and number received

during the year and acted upon.

Number of cases on examiners' desks January 1, 1851....
Number of applications received in 1851 ..

169 ..2,258

Number of cases besore the office during the year
Number of patents issued during the year..
Number of applications remaining unexamined.
Number of rejections and suspensions. ..

.

2,427 869

155 1,403

2,427

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