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LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL.

THE IMMIGRATION COMMISSION,

Washington, D. C., June 15, 1910. To the Sixty-first Congress:

I have the bonor to transmit herewith, on behalf of the Immigration Commission, Part 1 of the Commission's general report on immigrants in industries.

William P. DILLINGHAM, Chairman.

THE IMMIGRATION COMMISSION,

Washington, D, C., June 15, 1910. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith Part 1 of the general report of the Immigration Commission on immigrants in industries, which was prepared under the direction of the Commission by W. Jett Lauck, superintendent of agents. The part transmitted deals with immigrants in the bituminous coal-mining industry in Pennsylvania, the Middle West, the Southwest, and the South. Other parts of the general report now in preparation deal with immigrants in the following industries: Iron and steel manufacturing.

Sugar refining.
Cotton goods manufacturing in the North Glass manufacturing.
Atlantic States.

Agricultural implement and vehicle man-
Woolen and worsted goods manufacturing ufacturing
Silk goods manufacturing and dyeing. Cigar and tobacco manufacturing.
Clothing manufacturing.

Furniture manufacturing. Collar, cuff, and shirt manufacturing. Copper mining and smelting. Leather manufacturing.

Iron ore mining. Boot and shoe manufacturing.

Anthracite coal mining. Glove manufacturing.

Oil refining: Slaughtering and meat packing.

Diversified industries. There will be included in the same general report a summary of the above-mentioned parts, and also reports on the floating immigrant labor supply, recent immigrants in agriculture, and Japanese and other immigrant races in the Pacific Coast and Rocky Mountain States. Respectfully,

W. W. HUSBAND, Secretary. Hon. WILLIAM P. DILLINGHAM, United States Senate,

Chairman, The Immigration Commission.

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CONTENTS.

PART 1.--GENERAL SURVEY OF THE BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Page.

Expansion in bituminous coal-mining operations since 1860...

3

Increase in number of employees.

5

Geographical divisions studied.

6

Households studied....

6

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.

7

Employees for whom information was secured..

13

Comparative scope of the investigation.

17

Method of presenting data collected..

19

HAPTER II.-- Racial displacements:

Racial movements to, and displacements in, the bituminous coal-mining

industry

21

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households..

24

Racial classification of employees at the present time..

34

CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied. 39

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States...

44

General occupation

of women at the present time, in the households studied. 46

General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied. 47

Status of the first and second generations compared....

48

Occupations entered in the bituminous coal-mining industry.

49

Daily earnings....

50

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.

59

Annual earnings of male heads of families studied..

63

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied. 68

Annual family income..

73

Wives at work..

78

Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households

studied.

80

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers..

80

Sources of family income.

84

Relative importance of the different sources of family income..

88

CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Hours of work...

93

Methods of wage payments

93

Deductions from earnings of employees.

94

Company houses....

94

The company-store system...

95

Benefits received by employees in addition to wages.

96

Regularity of employment...

96

The immigrant and organized labor..

100

CHAPTER V.-Housing and living conditions:

Housing and living conditions..

105

Living arrangements.

105

Rent in its relation to standard of living.

106

Boarders and lodgers....

112

Size of apartments occupied.

117

Size of households studied..

121

Congestion

123
Page.

GENERAL SURVEY.

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Households studied ...

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured...

Employees for whom information was secured

CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration to Pennsylvania bituminous coal mines ....

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households...

Racial classification of employees at the present time....

CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied..

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States

General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied.

General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied.

Daily earnings

Relation between period of residence and earning ability

Annual earnings of male heads of families studied.

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

Actual annual earnings of representatives of selected races.

Annual family income

Wives at work.

Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers....

Sources of family income

Relative importance of the different sources of family income

CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Hours worked per day and per week...

Frequency and methods of wage payments

Deductions from earnings.

Regularity of employment

Description of a typical mining and coke village.

Company houses

The company-store system

Benefits received by employees in addition to wages

315

315

316

320

322

323

324

327

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