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CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions—Continued.

Welfare work ....

The immigrant and organized labor

Reasons for employing immigrants

CHAPTER V.-

Housing and living conditions:

Systems of domestic economy..

General housing and living conditions.

Rent in its relation to standard of living.

Boarders and lodgers.....

Size of apartments occupied
Size of households studied

Congestion ....

CHAPTER VI.-General cost and standard of living:

Explanation of study.

Salient facts relative to the families studied.

Food and general living expenditures.

Detailed expenditures of families studied

CHAPTER VII.-Industrial progress and efficiency:

Opinions of coal operators as to progress of immigrant employees....

Employers' statements as to efficiency of immigrant mine workers accord-

ing to specified standards.....

The use of intoxicants in its relation to efficiency.

CHAPTER VIII.-Industrial effects of immigration:

Employment of recent immigrants made possible a remarkable growth in

the industry

Changes in industrial methods and organization.

Immigration in its relation to mining accidents.

Displacement of former employees by recent immigrants.

Failure of native-born to enter the industry.

CHAPTER IX.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy...

Conjugal condition.

Visits abroad....

Age classification of employees and members of their households.

CHAPTER X.-General progress and assimilation:

Ownership of homes..

Public-school attendance.

Parochial-school attendance.

Status of children in the households studied.

Citizenship .....

Ability to speak English.

491

491

492

496

499

499
500

Church facilities....

Fraternal organizations

Recent immigrants in business

Employment and steamship agency

Immigrant boarding houses

553

553

554

554

555

PART III.—THE BITUMINOUS COAL MINING INDUSTRY IN THE

MIDDLE WEST.

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Page.

Households studied...

575

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.

576

Employees for whom information was secured......

578,

CHAPTER 11.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration to the coal fields of the Middle West...... 581

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households ...

587

Racial classification of employees at the present time

589

Racial movements to representative localities..

591

Representative communities in Illinois..

591

Representative communities in Indiana.

610

Representative districts in Ohio

614

CHAPTER III-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied.. 619

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States.

622

General occupation of women at the present time, in the households

studied

623

General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied. 624

Daily earnings..

635

Relation between period of residence and earning ability

637

Annual earnings of male heads of families studied ..

639

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied. 641

Annual family income...

642

Wives at work...

643

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers..

643

Sources of family income.

645

Relative importance of the different sources of family income.

646

CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Hours worked per day and per week.

649

Regularity of employment..

649

Methods of mining...

650

Methods of wage payments

650

The company-store system and company houses.

650

Liability to accident and disease

651

The supply of immigrant labor.

652

Relations among races employed.

653

The immigrant and organized labor.

654

Reasons for employing immigrants..

656

CHAPTER V.-Industrial effects of immigration:

Recent immigrants have made possible the development of the industry.. 661

Effect of machine methods of mining upon wages....

661

Displacement of old employees by recent immigrants.

666

Subsequent history of old employees...

668

668

Surplus labor supply of recent immigrants and its effects..

Rent in its relation to standard of living.

Boarders and lodgers

Size of apartments occupied

Size of households studied

Congestion

CHAPTER VII.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy ...

Conjugal condition

Visits abroad ......

Age classification of employees and members of their households

CHAPTER VIII.-General progress and assimilation:

Ownership of homes..

Citizenship..

Ability to speak English.

671

673

674

675

677

683

686

692

694

699

700

703

PART I.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE BITUMINOUS COAL

MINING INDUSTRY.

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