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All native-born families, as compared with 99 per cent of the foreignborn families, receive an income from earnings of husband. As regards the foreign-born races, the families of the English, Irish, South Italians, Lithuanians, Magyars, and Ruthenians report 100 per cent as receiving an income from the earnings of husband, while of the remaining foreign-born races furnishing information the proportions of families having an income from this source range from 99.7 per cent of the Poles to 88.9 per cent of the Welsh.

Among the races reporting an income from earnings of wife, the American negroes show the largest proportion of families, or 12.5 per cent, with incomes from such source, while of the other races reporting the proportion in no instance exceeds 2.4 per cent and in nine cases is zero.

Comparing the native-born with the foreign-born families, it will be seen that a larger proportion of the former than of the latter receive contributions from children, the proportions amounting to 21.4 and 12.5 per cent, respectively.' Of the families having an income from this source, the English report the largest proportion, or 50 per cent, followed closely by the Irish and Welsh, while the smallest proportion, or 5.9 per cent, is shown by the Croatians.

Considering the proportions of families receiving an income from payments of boarders or lodgers, it will be seen that the native-born show a much smaller proportion than the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born, a much smaller proportion of the families of older immigrant races than of the families of the more recent immigrant races have an income from boarders or lodgers, the proportions of the former ranging from 14.6 per cent of the Germans to 2.8 per cent of the Welsh; while the proportions of the latter range from 64.1 per çent of the Ruthenians to 38.7 per cent of the Slovaks. The nativeborn whites and negroes, on the other hand, report slightly smaller proportions than do any of the older immigrant races with the exception of the Welsh.

Of the families of all races having an income from sources other than those specified, the proportions of the Mexican and the nativeborn negro families stand out most prominently, the former reporting 82.1 and the latter 58.3 per cent. Following these races, in the order named, are the Lithuanians, Welsh, Irish, North Italians, and Slovaks, with proportions ranging from 24.2 to 11.4 per cent, while the proportion of no other race is as much as 10 per cent, the Croatians, with 3.4 per cent, reporting the smallest.

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The following table shows the source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 55.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The most frequent source of income of the 2,100 families in this industry from which information was obtained is the husband, and the second in frequency is the husband and boarders or lodgers, 40.6 per cent of the families receiving their entire income from the former and 35 per cent from the latter source. The husband and children in 7.8 per cent of the families furnish the entire income, while less than 1 per cent of the families report entire income as coming from any one of the other specified sources, and 15 per cent report sources or combination of sources not specified in the above table.

The native-born show a larger proportion than the foreign-born of families receiving their entire income from the husband, or 60.3 per cent as compared with 39.3 per cent.

The American whites show the largest proportion, or 72.3 per cent, of families supported by the husband alone. Comparing the foreignborn races, it will be seen that the Germans, North Italians, and Slovaks, each report proportions in excess of 45 per cent supported by the husband alone; while the Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and Mexi

cans, with 31.5, 25.6, and 10.3 per cent, respectively, show much smaller proportions. The proportions of the other races range from 43.2 per cent of the Irish to 33.3 per cent of the Russians.

Only five races, the American negroes, South Italians, Magyars, Poles, and Slovaks, show any families having their entire income from husband and wife, the negroes reporting the largest proportion, or 12.5 per cent.

The older immigrant races, such as the English, German, Irish, and Welsh, show much larger proportions of families supported entirely by husband and children than do the more recent immigrant races. Of the older immigrant races, the English show the largest and the German the smallest proportion of families having entire income from this source, the percentages being 45.5 and 22, respectively, while the proportions of the more recent immigrant races range from 7.7 per cent for the Ruthenians to zero for the Croatians.

The American whites, with 1.2 per cent, and the Germans, with 2.4 per cent, are the only races reporting any families having entire income from husband, wife, and children.

The native-born of native father and the older immigrant races show very small proportions of families supported entirely by husband and boarders or lodgers, as compared with proportions shown. by the more recent immigrant races, the former reporting proportions ranging from 9.8 per cent of the Germans to 2.3 per cent of the Irish, while the proportions of the latter range from 61.5 per cent of the Ruthenians to 33.8 per cent of the North Italians. The Welsh alone report no families having entire income from this

source.

The following table shows the per cent of families receiving an income from the husband only, by locality and by general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 56.-Per cent of families having entire income from husband, by locality and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284.]

General nativity and race of head of family.

Native-born of native father, White.
Foreign-born:

Croatian..

Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.

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(b)

South

west.

76.9

90.5

53.3

46.9

.0

Total bi

tuminous coal mining.a

72.3

37.0

45.8

34.3

Magyar...

Polish..

Slovak..

Grand total..

Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..

Total foreign-born..

75.5

68.2

81.0

(b)

80.7

18.4

47.6

34.6

43.2

36.3

57.7

35.8

27.6

26.4

(b)

28.3

28.3

(b)

45.7

68.9

43.5

55.6

41.4

31.5

39.4

36.8

45.3

40.6

58.3

60.3

39.3

This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

This table is of special interest in that it shows that only 40.6 per cent of all families reporting for the entire industry are dependent upon the husband's income alone. The foreign-born show the smallest proportion, or 39.3 per cent, so dependent, as compared with 60.3 per cent of the total native-born. In other words, 59.4 per cent of all families furnishing information have some source of income other than the earnings of husbands in the mines. The smallest proportion, or 28.3 per cent, dependent entirely upon the income of the husband, is found in the South, and the largest proportion, or 81 per cent, is shown in the Middle West, while Pennsylvania and the Southwest report 36.3 and 43.5 per cent, respectively.

Because of the insufficient numbers of certain races reporting from all localities, or because of the entire absence of such races, it is not possible to compare more than a few of the races in the several localities. Where it is possible to compare the same race in at least three localities, it will be seen that the proportion of families dependent entirely upon the income of the husbands is larger in the Middle West than elsewhere. Of the North Italian families, for example, 90 per cent in the Middle West, as compared with 53.3 per cent in the Southwest and 27.7 per cent in Pennsylvania, are supported by earnings of husbands.

Although the South Italian families show smaller proportions supported entirely from the husbands' incomes than do the North Italians in the several localities, the same relative position of these localities is maintained, the largest proportion, or 83.3 per cent, being in the Middle West, only, 22 per cent in Pennsylvania, and 18.5 per cent in the South. The data for the Poles show that 68.2 per cent of the families of that race in the Middle West are dependent upon the efforts of the husbands alone, as compared with 34.6 per cent in Pennsylvania. The proportion in the South is lower than that of Pennsylvania, only 26.4 per cent of the families being supported entirely by the earnings of husbands, while in the Southwest the proportion is 45.7 per cent.

RELATIVE

IMPORTANCE

OF

THE DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY
INCOME.

The table which is next submitted indicates the relative importance of the various sources of income by showing the per cent of total yearly income from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race.

TABLE 57.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284.

It is evident from the table above that the largest part (77.4 per cent) of the income of the total number of families considered, is derived from the earnings of the husband, and, furthermore, the percentage of total income contributed by the husband is higher for the native-born than it is for the foreign-born. The families of nativeborn whites of native parentage have a slightly lower percentage of total income from husbands' earnings than those of native-born of foreign parents. Only 0.1 per cent of the family income (considering the total number of families) is derived from earnings of wife. The contributions of children constitute 11.9 per cent of the total income of the native-born, whereas the corresponding proportion for the foreign-born is only 9 per cent. Of the Irish, English, Welsh, and German families, however, the contributions of the children are relatively very large. The payments of boarders and lodgers are only 1.5 per cent of the total income of the native-born families, while from the same source is derived 13.1 per cent of the total income of the foreign families.

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