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ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The annual earnings of these married women together with all females 18 years of age or over in the households studied, are shown in the table which follows:

Table 50.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

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The average earnings of the 52 females from whom information was secured for the foregoing table amount to $204. Of the number reporting, 46.2 per cent earn less than $200, 61.5 per cent under $300, 86.5 per cent under $400, and 3.8 per cent $500 or over. Over 25 per cent of the native-born earn less than $200, and 48.6 per cent earn less than $300, while persons native-born of foreign father report 33.3 per cent earning less than $300, and only 12.5 per cent earning less than $200 per year. No race shows a sufficient number of females at work to permit of computing percentages, and it is apparent from the table as a whole that a negligible amount of the family income of families whose heads are bituminous-mine workers is derived from the earnings of wives or female members of the families working for wages.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE

OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

It will be of value to show the proportion of wives who have employment or who keep boarders or lodgers according to the amount of income earned by their husbands, in order to see whether there is any relation between the earnings of the husbands and the tendency of the wives to work independently. The tables following show the number and per cent of wives who have employment or who keep boarders or lodgers and whose husbands earn each specified amount per year.

Table 51.—Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.]

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a This column includes 2 families in which husband's earnings are reported as "none."

$600

or over.

3

2

1

6

2

2

1

10

16

11

15

1

24

1

2

3

33

1

135

2 5 130

TABLE 52.- Per cent of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers, by yearly

earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284. Of the selected families, only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.)

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On reference to these tables it will be seen that, of the total number of families reporting, a proportion of 42.1 per cent of the wives either have employment or keep boarders or Todgers. The proportion of wives who are employed or who keep boarders or lodgers is much larger among the foreign-born than among the native-born families, the former reporting 44.3 per cent, as compared with only 8.4 per cent of the latter. The proportion of wives engaged either in employment or in keeping boarders or lodgers is smallest in the case of families the heads of which have incomes of $600 or more per annum, but the proportion among families whose heads have incomes of between $400 and $600 is greater than among those having an income under $400.

Of the total number of families the heads of which report an income of less than $400 per annum, the proportion of wives who have employment or keep boarders or lodgers is 41.9 per cent. The race in this group showing the largest proportion is the Lithuanian, with 67.2 per cent; the Russians are second, and the Croatians, North Italians, Magyars, and Ruthenians follow in the order named. None of the wives of the English, German, Irish, or Welsh in this group have employment or keep boarders or lodgers, and only 4.8 per cent of the native whites and 12.5 per cent of the negroes of native father.

Of the families the heads of which have an income of from $400 to $600, the Ruthenians show the largest proportion of wives who either

have employment or keep boarders or lodgers, the proportion being 88.2 per cent. Of the Croatians, the proportion is 64.4 per cent, while the proportions of the Poles, South Italians, Magyars, Lithuanians, Russians, and Slovaks range from 54.1 to 45.6 per cent. Compared with these races, which are of recent immigration, the Irish show a much smaller proportion, or 5.9 per cent, while none of the wives of the Welsh or the native whites are thus engaged. The negroes of native father, on the other hand, report 25 per cent of their wives who either have employment or keep boarders or lodgers.

The extent to which wives of coal-mine operatives have employment or keep boarders or lodgers in the various localities studied is shown by the table which follows:

TABLE 53.—Per cent of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers, by

locality and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting in each of two or more localities.

The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284. of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

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* This total includes persons in households not shown in the localities, because within a locality no race **s tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

From this table it is evident that among the foreign-born the greatest tendency for wives to work or to keep boarders or lodgers is observable in the South. Of the foreign-born households 66.4 per cent in the South, 51.5 per cent in Pennsylvania, 20.9 per cent in the Southwest, and 12.4 per cent in the Middle West, keep boarders or lodgers or have employment in some form.

As illustrating the relative tendencies of any one race in different localities, a striking comparison may be made in the case of the South Italians. Of the wives of this race only 12.5 per cent of the total in the Middle West, as compared with 21.9 per cent in the Southwest,

per cent in the South, and 69.5 per cent in Pennsylvania, keep boarders or lodgers or have other employment. Of the Polish wives, 22.7 per cent in the Middle West and 31.4 per cent in the Southwest, as well as 53.3 per cent in Pennsylvania and 67.9 per cent in the South, keep boarders or lodgers or are engaged in some other work. Of the Lithuanian wives in Pennsylvania 72.4 per cent work or keep boarders or lodgers, as compared with 20.4 per cent in the Middle West and 62.5 per cent in the Southwest.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

That the practice of the wives of coal-mine employees of keeping boarders or lodgers is widespread affords evidence in itself of the origin of a large amount of family income from this source. The relative importance of the various sources of family income is set forth in the following series of tables.

The table first presented shows the per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

Table 54.Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife,

children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Upon information secured from 2,100 families in this industry, 99 per cent have an income from earnings of husband, 41.3 per cent from payments of boarders or lodgers, 13.1 per cent from contributions of children, 0.8 per cent from earnings of wife, and 12.7 per cent from other sources not specified.

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