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Average yearly income of family, by general nativity and race of head of family. [This chart shows only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all racer.]

$500 and $750. On the other hand, 48.8 per cent of the Germans, 47.7 per cent of the Irish, 36.1 per cent of the Welsh, 33.1 per cent of the Slovaks, 61.5 per cent of the Ruthenians, 37.8 per cent of the Poles, 28.3 per cent of the Magyars, 38.2 per cent of the Lithuanians, 33.1 per cent of the North Italians, 31.9 per cent of the South Italians, and 31.1 per cent of the Croatians have a family income ranging between $500 and $750 a year. Of the English families 36.3 per cent, of the German 21.9 per cent, of the Welsh 5.5 per cent, of the Irish 11.4 per cent, of the Magyar 12.5 per cent, of the Slovak 11.4 per cent, of the Lithuanian 10.9 per cent, of the South Italian 10.7 per cent, and of the Polish 10.3 per cent have a yearly income between $750 and $1,000. The Welsh report 30.6 per cent of their families having an income of $1,000 or more per year, the English 27.3 per cent, the Irish 22.7 per cent, and the Germans 17.1 per cent. None of the Russian or Ruthenian families have an income of $1,000 or over, and of the total foreign-born only 7.4 per cent have an income of that amount.

The general range of incomes for all foreign-born households is between $300 and $750, 72 per cent of the total foreign-born coming within these two extremes. The larger part of those receiving under $300 are recent immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, and the households having an income above $750 are principally of races of Great Britain and northern Europe. In addition to the above showing for the industry as a whole, the following table exhibits the average annual family income, by general nativity and race, in the principal bituminous mining localities. Table 47.-- Average family income per year, by locality and by general nativity and race

of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 10 or more selected families reporting in each of two or more localities.

The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284.]

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a This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or inore schedules were secured.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

It is evident from the table above that the native-born families have the largest income in the Pennsylvania bituminous field, the high average for this section being due in large measure to the fact

that the native-born employed in the Pennsylvania mines are largely in supervisory or responsible positions and are not miners to the same extent as in other localities.

If the average for the total families whose heads are of foreign birth be taken, the highest showing is made by the South and the lowest by the Middle West, the average family income for the foreignborn in the Southwest being higher than in Pennsylvania or the Middle West. The relatively high showing for the South is largely to be attributed to the fact that the races of comparatively low efficiency which are employed in other sections are not found in such numbers in the South. Consequently the general showing for this locality is higher than it would be if a larger number of races were represented. At the same time it is worthy of note that of the races represented in the South all have a family income of larger amount than they have in any other coal-mining region.

In comparing the several races, the North Italian families are seen to have the lowest average income in the Southwest and the highest in the South, with the average showing for the Middle West higher than in Pennsylvania. The South Italian and Polish families show their lowest average family income in the Middle West and the highest in the South. The Slovak families have their smallest income in the Southwest and the largest in the South.

In order to bring out more forcibly the economic status of the various races, as well as the racial tendencies in the different coal fields, the following table is presented. It makes a comparison of the proportion of families having an income below the general level by showing the per cent of families having an annual income under $500, by locality and by general nativity and race.

TABLE 48.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income under $500, by locality and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284.]

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This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured. Not computed, owing to small number involved.

As a class the families of the mine employees show in Table 48 only 47.2 per cent of their number with incomes under $500, and the proportion would be considerably less were it not for the foreign-born element, whose percentage of 47.8 contrasts unfavorably with the 29.2 per cent of the families native-born of foreign father and the 37.4 per cent of the native-born as a whole. The families of whites native-born of native father report 28.9 per cent.

The four races of foreign birth in the Middle West rank as follows: North Italians first, with 32 per cent reporting incomes of less than $500; Lithuanians second, with 46.9 per cent thus reporting; Poles third, their percentage being 63.6; and the South Italians last, their proportion of families of this class being 83.3 per cent, the highest shown by any race in any geographical division. The native-born families are not reported in sufficient numbers for percentages to be computed.

In the Pennsylvania coal fields the American whites make the best showing among the races represented, only 15.4 per cent of them reporting an income under $500 a year. The Poles follow with 44.5 per cent, and the South Italians with 49.2 per cent. The Magyar percentage of 60.8 is the highest in this locality.

In the South no native-born and only three foreign-born races are tabulated. The latter present more creditable conditions than those in some other divisions, the proportions of families with incomes of less than $500 being only 24.1 per cent of the Magyars, 37.7 per cent of the Poles, and 42.6 per cent of the South Italians.

Eight races are included in the study of the Southwest, seven of which are represented in sufficient numbers for tabulation. In this field the Croatians show 81 per cent having an income of less than $500 annually. The Slovaks, with 73.3 per cent, also appear unfavorably. The Lithuanians rank well, with only 12.5 per cent having an annual income of less than $500.

WIVES AT WORK.

In order to obtain a complete understanding of the economic status of the families of the bituminous mine workers it is necessary to ascertain the sources, and the relative importance of each source, of family income in addition to the earnings of the heads of the families whose daily and annual earnings have already been studied. A partial answer to this inquiry is found in the following tabulation, which is designed to show what tendency there may be on the part of wives of employees in the bituminous coal and coke industries in the United States to engage in gainful occupations. This table, which immediately follows, shows the number and per cent of wives at work for wages.

TABLE 49.—Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284.
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The total number of families furnishing data for this table is 2,100 and the number of wives is 2,094. The table shows 17 of the wives to have been engaged in gainful occupations. Of these, 4 were the wives of native-born and 13 of foreign-born workmen. Of the former, 3 were negresses and 1 was the wife of a white man native-born of native father. The group of employees native-born of foreign father is not represented. Of the 13 foreigners having wives at work, 4 were South Italians, 3 Poles, and 3 Slovaks. The occupations of boardinghouse keeper and lodging-house keeper have not been considered gainful occupations for the purposes of this table.

The proportion of married women of a given group who work outside the home depends upon two general factors. Of these the first is availability of work, and the second is approval on the part of the members of the group of the outside employment of married women. One of the distinguishing features of the coal and coke industries is the fact that in the great majority of instances the employees are compelled by the very nature of their work to live in small and isolated communities. Bituminous coal mines are seldom located in or near towns. Mining work can be done only by men. The manufacturing establishments of the cities and towns which employ such a large number of immigrant women are too far distant to be accessible to the wives of mine workers. For these, remaining in the home or entering domestic service are in general the only alternatives. Because of this small percentage of gainful employment, and inasmuch as the reason that it is no greater is in all probability the lack of opportunities of employment, it would seem unsafe to attempt to base upon the data given any deduction as to the tendency of the different races to permit or to encourage the employment of wives outside the home. The significant fact in the present connection is, however, that less than 1 per cent of the married women are employed outside the home.

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