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Average yearly earnings of males 18 years of age or over working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

[This chart shows only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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excluding the French, the average yearly earnings range from $592 for the English to $485 for the Scotch; while of the more recent immigrants, excluding the Roumanians, the average earnings range from $448 for the Ruthenians to $363 for the Slovenians. The English, while showing a slightly larger proportion than the Germans, a slightly smaller proportion than the Irish, and a much smaller proportion than the Welsh, earning less than $400 a year, show a much lower per cent than any of these races earning less than $600 a year. Of these same races the Welsh show the largest proportion earning $1,000 a year, having 10 per cent of their number so reported, as compared with 5.2 per cent of the Irish, 3.1 per cent of the Germans, and 2.8 per cent of the English.

Only one of the more recent immigration races, the Russian, shows as much as 1 per cent earning $1,000 a year. Of these same races the Croatians with 91.2 per cent, Bohemians and Moravians with 90.9 per cent, and Russians with 90.4 per cent, show the largest proportions earning less than $600, the others ranging from 89.8 per cent in the case of the Lithuanians to 72.7 per cent in that of the Roumanians.

In the group of those who earn under $400, the Croatians show 61.3 per cent, while none of the Roumanians earn less than this amount. The proportions of the other more recent immigrant races who earn less than $400 range from 55.3 per cent of the Russians to 30.9 per cent of the Ruthenians.

Of all males who earn less than $600 a year, the Mexicans show the largest proportion, or 96.5 per cent, while 68.4 per cent of this race earn less than $400.

The next table presented shows the average annual earnings of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 44.-Average yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over working for wages, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 10 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured. Not computed, owing to small number involved.

As will be seen from this table, the average yearly earnings of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied are higher in the Middle West and lower in Pennsylvania than in the South and Southwest. It is apparent that this condition in the Middle West is due to some extent to the high average earnings of the native whites of native father, the average in this locality amounting to $696, as compared to $560 in Pennsylvania and $496 in the Southwest. Because of the small number of persons native-born of foreign father who reported, a comparison of average earnings, by locality and by race of father, is impracticable. For the total of the second generation, however, the average annual earnings are higher in the Southwest than in Pennsylvania.

Of the foreign-born, the North Italians of the Middle West show $539 as their average annual earnings, as compared with $486 in the South, $411 in the Southwest, and $389 in Pennsylvania. The South Italians, on the other hand, show average earnings higher in Pennsylvania and lower in the Middle West than in the Southwest and South. Another reversal of position is noted in the case of the Lithuanians, who show average earnings of $549 in the Southwest, as compared with $475 in the South, $423 in the Middle West, and $365 in Pennsylvania. The average earnings of the Poles in the Southwest are but little higher than in the South and in Pennsylvania, yet much higher than in the Middle West.

With the exception of the South Italians, above mentioned, and the Slovaks, both of whom show higher earnings in Pennsylvania than in other localities, the foreign-born races, when found reporting from Pennsylvania, the South, and Southwest, show higher earnings in the South and Southwest than in Pennsylvania.

The following table shows the proportion of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied who earn under $400, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual: Table 45.—Per cent of males 18 years of age or over working for wages and earning under $400 per year, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

General nativity and race of individual.

Middle
West.

Pennsyl-
vania.

South.

South-
west.

Total bituminous (val mining a

10.0

18.8

47.7

31. 4

59.1

61.3 20.3

Native-born of native father, White
Foreign-born:

Croatian...
German.
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar...
Polish..
Russian.
Slovak.

9.6 44.4 26.0

62.0
31.0
61.7
40. 4
62.8
54.4
48.5
57.5
41.9

(6)
(0)

11.4
25.0
39. 4
31.4
41.9
33.9
57.1
55. 2

55. 2 24.4 40.3 (b) 47.9

306 45.9

78.3

44.3 55.3 452

65.4

Grand total......

29.5

47.7

37.3

52.0

44.8

Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born....
Total foreign-born.

(b)

14.3
31.6

56.7
39.8
48.2

56.3
61.4
49.9

461 44.4

37.5

44.9

a This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

Not coinputed, owing to small number involved.

It will be seen from this table that 52 per cent of the males furnishing information from the Southwest earn less than $400, as compared with 47.7 per cent in Pennsylvania, 37.3 per cent in the South, and 29.5 per cent in the Middle West. Only a slight variation in the proportions shown for the foreign-born is noted in the several localities, while the native-born show a much larger proportion in the Southwest than in other localities who earn less than $400. As between persons native-born of foreign father in Pennsylvania and in the Southwest, the latter locality shows a slightly smaller proportion than the former, with earnings under this amount.

Of the foreign-born races reporting, the position of the North Italians in the several localities is of special interest. Only 9.6 per cent of this race in the Middle West earn less than $400 as compared with 61.7 per cent in Pennsylvania, 25 per cent in the South, and 55.2 per cent in the Southwest. It is evident from these proportions that the North Italians of the Middle West and South are either more efficient or more industrious than those in Pennsylvania and the Southwest. The South Italians show a smaller proportion in the South and Southwest than in the Middle West and Pennsylvania who earn less than $400. Of the Poles, 78.3 per cent in the Middle West earn less than $400, as compared with 33.9 per cent in the South, 47.9 per cent in the Southwest, and 48.5 per cent in Pennsylvania.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

The earnings of heads of families and of male members of households considered as individual mining employees having been discussed, it will be next in order to set forth the family incomes of the mine workers, to show the relation of the family income to the earnings of the heads of families and to ascertain whether there are any sources of family income in addition to the earnings of the husbands, and, if so, the extent and importance of such sources. With this object in view the table submitted below shows, by general nativity and race, the average annual family income, as well as the range of family incomes, of the families studied.

TABLE 46.Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, TABLE 46.—Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount,

by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

Per cent of families having a total income

General nativity and race of

head of family.

Number Average
of selected family
families.a income.

Under
$300.

Under
$500.

Under
$750.

Under
$1,000.

Under $1,500.

83
24

$707
470

6.0
4.2

28.9
75.0

63.9
91.7

84.3
95,8

97.6 100.0

Native-born of native father:

White

Negro
Foreign-born:

Croatian.
English
German
Irish
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian.

119
22
41
44
275
169
165

528
858
798
803
559
547
566

16.8
4.5

.0
4.5
10.9

7.1
13.3

58.8
13.6
12. 2
18. 2
51.3
52.7
43. 6

89.9
36.4
61.0
65. 9
84.4
84.6
81.8

95.0
72.7
82.9
77.3
93.1
95.3
92.7

96.6 95.5 90.2 86.4 98. 2 100.0 98.2

a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284.

by general nativity and race of head of family- Continued.

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The general averages of annual family income, as shown in the above table, are $569 for the foreign-born, $707 for whites native-born of native father, and $855 for immigrants of the second generation, while the average for all races is $577.

Among the foreign-born the English, Irish, German, and Welsh races rank high, with averages of from $858 to $737. The lowest average is shown for the Russians with $468. It is interesting to note that the lowest average shown for the foreign-born is about the same as the lowest shown for the native-born, that of $470, for the native negro.

As regards the range of family incomes, 63.9 per cent of the whites native-born of native father have a family income under $750 a year, and 35 per cent have an income between $500 and $750 a year, as compared with 82.1 per cent of the total number of foreign-born families having an income under $750, and 34.3 per cent with an income between $500 and $750. On the other hand, 20.4 per cent of the whites native-born of native father have an income between $750 and $1,000, while only 10.5 per cent of the foreign-born have a family income of the same amount. In the higher ranges of income, the whites native-born of native father have a proportion of 15.7 per cent with an income above $1,000 a year, while foreign-born families have a proportion less than one-half as great. At the other extreme, it is also seen that only 28.9 per cent of the whites nativeborn of 'native father have an income less than $500, while 47.8 per cent of the foreign-born families receive a similar income. It is also worthy of note that 22.9 per cent of the families of whites nativeborn of native father and 37.7 per cent of the foreign-born families, have an income between $300 and $500 a year.

Among the families whose heads are of foreign birth, the Mexican race in the above table makes the lowest showing, 61.5 per cent of the households of this race having an income between $300 and $500, and 23.1 per cent between $500 and $750, while 7.7 per cent have an income less than $300. A relatively poor showing is also made by Russian households, 53.8 per cent of which receive a family income between $300 and $500, while 30.7 per cent have an income between

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