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TABLE 40.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

General nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284.]

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Number earning

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40 70

24

24

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Under $800.

11

107
10

20
31

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16

3

233
148
145

15

12 109 185

122

37 255 3

23

36
31

14

4

8

180

338

7

10 20

13

887 1,714 2,013 2, 054

Under $1,000.

76

24

Under $100.

9 (a) 10(a)

365

4 41

846 1,639 1,903 1,935

.0

.3

.7

Per cent earning-

Under $200.

13 (a)

(a) (a)

(a) (a) (a)

117 117 .9 6.8 53.0 91.5 100.0 100.0 .0 27.3 45.5 90.9 95.5

21 .0

11 (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a)

37 .0
42 .0

266 270 .0

166 169 .0

.0 15.4 51.3 87.2 94.9 4.5 31.8 70.5 93.2 95.5 5.9 46.7 86.3 98.5 100.0 1.8 33.7 87.6 98.2100.0 9.1 40.6 87.9 98.8 98.8 5.6 50.5 85.6 97.7 100.0 .0 63.2 97. 4 100.0 100.0 2.3 40.9 85.6 97.0 99.3

3.0

163 216 38

.5

296

9 (a)

(a) (a) (a) (a) (a)

38 5.3
39 2.6

5.3 60.5 94.7100.0 100.0
5.1 35.9 79.5 100.0 100.0

408

9 (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) .5 5.4 44.0 82.6 98.5 99.8 11 (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) 6.3 40.6 62.5 81.3 87.5

28

.0

4.4 42.6 82.4 96.8 98.8

Under $400.

0.0 0.0 25.3 48.3 84.3 91.6 .0 .0 66.7100.0 100.0 100.0

OON

Under $600.

(a) (a)
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11 16 19 .Ο .0 16.7 45.8 66.7 79.2 75 110 119

0 31.3 57.3 84.0 90.8 4.7 43.4 84.1 97.6 99.3

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The principal races to be considered in the foregoing table are the Croatian, North and South Italian, Lithuanian, Magyar, Polish, and Slovak, because they appear in larger numbers than do any of the others.

Among the Croatians, 117 male heads of families reported the amount of their earnings, and of this number 0.9 per cent earned under $100, 6.8 per cent under $200, 53 per cent under $400, 91.5 per cent under $600, and 100 per cent under $800. Of the North Italian male heads of families, 5.9 per cent earned under $200, 46.7 per cent under $400, 86.3 per cent under $600, 98.5 per cent under $800, and 100 per cent under $1,000. Of the South Italian race 1.8 per cent earned under $200, 33.7 per cent under $400, 87.6 per cent under $600, 98.2 per cent under $800, and 100 per cent under $1,000.

Among the Lithuanians, 165 male heads of families reported the amount of their earnings, and of this number 3 per cent earned under

$100, 9.1 per cent under $200, 40.6 per cent under $400, 87.9 per cent under $600, and 98.8 per cent under $800. Of a total of 216 Magyar male heads of families, 0.5 per cent earned under $100, 5.6 per cent under $200, 50.5 per cent under $400, 85.6 per cent under $600, 97.7 per cent under $800, and 100 per cent under $1,000. Of the Poles, 0.3 per cent earned under $100, 2.3 per cent under $200, 40.9 per cent under $400, 85.6 per cent under $600, 97 per cent under $800, and 99.3 per cent under $1,000. Of the Slovak male heads of families, 0.5 per cent earned under $100, 5.4 per cent under $200, 44 per cent under $400, 82.6 per cent under $600, 98.5 per cent under $800, and 99.8 per cent under $1,000.

The showing made by the whites native-born of native father is much better than that of any race mentioned above. Out of a total of 83 heads of families, 25.3 per cent earned under $400, 48.3 per cent under $600, 84.3 per cent under $800, and 91.6 per cent under $1,000. Comparing this race group with all others reporting, it is noticeable that a greater per cent received annually over $1,000 than did the members of any other race, excepting the Welsh.

The following table shows, by locality and by general nativity and race, the average annual earnings of heads of families:

Table 41. -- Average yearly earnings of male heads of families, by locality and by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 10 or more male heads of selected families reporting in each of two or

more localities. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see 'ol. II, p. 284.)

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a This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality 10 race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

o Not computed, owing to small number involved.

This table shows that the average earnings of husbands of all races at work are highest in the Southern coal fields, in which locality the general average is $500 per annum, and that the lowest annual earnings are made in the Pennsylvania field, where the average for all persons is $429. Persons native-born of native father, as is evidenced in the foregoing table, receive the highest wages in the Middle West, where an average of $690 is reached.

Among the foreign-born husbands at work in the different bituminous coal fields, only the North Italians, South Italians, and Poles are

reported for all localities, and a comparison of their yearly earnings has an important bearing upon racial tendencies under different conditions. In the Middle West and the South the North Italians receive the highest wages of the three races, while the South Italians average the highest earnings in the Pennsylvania and Southwestern fields. The Poles earn more in Pennsylvania and the Southwest than the North Italians, and more in the South than the South Italians.

The highest wages received in any locality among the foreign races are those reported for the Germans in the Southern fields, who average $663 per annum. In the Middle West the Poles receive the lowest wages reported, $324, and in Pennsylvania the Lithuanians receive $362, the next lowest average yearly earnings reported.

During the discussion of the industry as a whole, attention has been called to the large number of mine workers who are earning less than $400 a year. Whether this smallness of earning capacity is a characteristic of certain races, or whether it arises from working conditions and lack of opportunity in different localities, may be inferred from the table which follows, showing, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male heads of families in the different localities who earn less than $400 a year.

TABLE 42.-Per cent of male heads of families earning under $400 per year, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more male heads of selected families reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284.]

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29.6

(b)

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Magyar..

Polish.

Slovak.

Grand total..

Total native-born of foreign father...
Total native-born...

Total foreign-born..

81.8

30.1

(b)

32.4

55.9

39.2

41.7

47.2

15.4

47.9

34.5

28.3

(0)

26.5

26.5

(b)

48.6

64.4

44.9

49.2

44. 1

50.5

40.9

44.0

42.6

16.7

31.3 43.4

This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Upon examining the totals for all races in the foregoing table, it is at once apparent that a relatively greater number of heads of families in Pennsylvania than in any other locality are earning less than $400 a year. As a matter of fact, nearly one-half of the heads of families employed in the Pennsylvania mines are earning less than $400. Moreover, as compared with Pennsylvania, the Southwest makes only a slightly better showing in the percentage of all races earning less than $400 annually.

In the Middle West only 30.1 per cent, and in the South 26.5 per cent, of all reporting, earn an annual income less than $400.

On contrasting the individual races which are employed in all four localities some radical variations are noticeable. In the Middle West 45.8 per cent of the South Italians, for instance, as compared with 40.7 per cent in Pennsylvania, 29.6 per cent in the South, and 18.8 per cent in the Southwest, are earning less than $400 annually. The South Italian has but recently entered the fields of the Middle West, however, and has to meet the competition of English-speaking miners and of unusually efficient North Italians and Lithuanians. Of the Poles, four-fifths are earning less than $400 annually in the Middle West, and the Slovaks, who are the oldest and most experienced miners of southern and eastern European races in western Pennsylvania, make a comparatively poor showing in the Southwest.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The foregoing tables are confined to the average annual earnings and range of earnings of heads of families. A much larger number of persons is covered by the following table and chart, which show, by general nativity and race of individual, the approximate annual earnings of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied who were working for wages. TABLE 43.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Number earning-

Per cent earning

Number

working A verGeneral nativity and race for wages age of individual.

and earnreporting ings. amount.

Under Under Under Under Under Under Under Under $200. $400. $600. $1,000. $200. $400. $600. $1,000.

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Native-born of native fa-
ther:
White.

140 $549 11 44 82 132 7.9 Negro..

30 377 1 29 30 30 3.3 Native-born of foreign father, by race of father: Bohemian and Moravian.

2 (a)

2 2

2 (a) English.

23 527 2 9 16 21 8.7 French..

(a)

2

2 (a) German.

14 475

6 11 14 (a) Irish.

44 532

14 29 41 9.1 Italian, North..

5
(a)

3

5 (a) Lithuanian 3 (e)

3

3 (a Magyar..

(a)

3 6

7 (a) Polish.

(a)

4
6

6 (a) Ruthenian.

(a)

2 3

3 Scotch..

(a)

6

6 Slovak.

16 373

10 15 16 Welsh..

10 466

7

7 10 Foreign-born:

Bohemian and Moravian.

22 413 1 10 20 22 4.5 Bosnian

(a)

1
1

1 (a) Croatian.

194 378 22 119 177 194 11.3 English.

36 592

8 15 35 French..

.0 16 311

3 10 16 16 (a) German.

64 562

1 13 39 62 1.6 Irish.. 58 517 3 17

39 55 5. 2 Italian, North. 438 427 18 212

437

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45.5 (a) 61.3 22. 2 (a) 20. 3 29.3 48. 4 38.6 45.9 48.2 68.4

90.9
(a)
91.2
41.7
(a)
00.9
67.2
88.6
88.5
89.8
88.9
96.5

100.0 (a) 100.0

97.2 (a) 96.9 94. S 99.3 100.0

4.1 Italian, South.

435 434
8 167 385 435

1.8
Lithuanian
206 437 27 122 239 264

10.2 Magyar.. 386 413 19 186

343 386 4.9 Mexican.

57 379 1 39 55 57 1.8 a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

99. 2 100.0 100.0

388

TABLE 43.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual-Continued.

Number
Number earning-

Per cent earning-
working Aver-
General nativity and race for wages age
of individual.

and eainreporting ings. Under Under Under Under Under Under Under Under amount.

$200. $400. $600. $1,000. $200. $400. $600. $1,000.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. From this table it will be seen that for 3,766 male employees furnishing information the average yearly earnings amount to $443. Of this number 44.8 per cent earn less than $400, 85.4 per cent less than $600, and 0.8 per cent $1,000 or over per year. Of the total number, 91.7 per cent are foreign-born with average yearly earnings of $438, and 8.3 per cent are native-born with average yearly earnings of $497. The largest difference is found to exist between the native and foreign born earning under $600, 86.6 per cent of the latter earning less than this amount, as compared with 71.7 per cent of the former. It will also be noted that a larger per cent of native than of foreign born earn $1,000 or over per year, due evidently to the fact that the native-born are employed in the more responsible positions.

The whites native-born of native father show average yearly earnings of $549, as compared with $377 for the negroes. This is the more apparent when it is seen that 96.7 per cent of the negroes earn under $400, while only 31.4 per cent of the whites native-born of native father earn under this amount.

Of the persons native-born of foreign father, the Irish show higher average annual earnings than any other race, or $532. This is followed by the English with $527, the Germans with $475, and the Welsh with $466. The second generation Slovaks show average yearly earnings of only $373. Second generation English and Irish show proportions earning $1,000, which are not only larger than that of any foreign-born race, except the Welsh, but larger than that of the native-born whites.

With the exception of the Roumanians, who report the high average earnings of $538 as compared with the other more recent immigrant races, and the French, who among the older immigrants report the very low average earnings of $341, the average earnings of the older immigrant races, or the races from Great Britain and northern Europe, are much higher than the average earnings of the races from southern and eastern Europe. Of the older immigrant races,

48296°—VOL 6–11—6

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